Zen and the Ways

Contents

Part One: Zen – Koan Zen, Mushin, The Wave, Dragon-head snake-tail.
Part Two: Kamakura Zen – Introduction, Political background, Daikaku,
On Meditation, Sayings of Daikaku, Bukko, Outline of Bukko’s teachings.
Part Three: Kamakura Koans.
Part Four: The Ways.
Part Five: Texts of the Ways.
Part Six: Stories of the Ways
Historical Appendices and index of names and technical terms.

Extracts

Introduction

Zen is a Japanese word derived through a Chinese approximate pronunciation from the Buddhist hybrid Sanskrit ‘dhyana’, which means illumined trance. The word is written in Japanese with the Chinese character imported along with the concept.   The left-hand side of the character is what is called the radical, and gives the general class to which it belongs 5 this radical is associated with religion and with happiness. It is itself a character. It is  similar to (and often confused with) another radical, which has the meaning ‘garment’. The right-hand side gives a rough guide to the pronunciation, but this too is often chosen, out of several possible ones, for its appropriateness, here the right-hand side means ‘alone’. It is a character in its own right. Most Chinese characters have at least two pronunciations in Japan. One is an approximation to the way the Chinese pronounced them (in the sixth,…

Koan Zen

Koan Zen The principle of the koan (literally an official declaration) is something like English case-law, or collating scientific observations: a principle is extracted from concrete individual cases. In theory anything, if investigated to the limit, reveals Buddha-nature, and not merely theoretically but practically. But most ordinary things do not have enough ‘charge’ of feeling to hold attention for very long, and in many cases the principle is difficult to observe because it is masked by the circumstances. If one wants to discover, or confirm, the effect of gravity, one should not choose as his field of experiment and observation the fall of a feather. Gravity is as fully operative there as anywhere, but the influence of air resistance, wind and so on obscure its working. Advanced students do indeed tackle just such problems, but they are not appropriate when establishing the basic principle. In any life which is controlled…

Mushin

Mushin (without heart, without mind) means: (1) complete cutting off of the thought-streams5 (2) freedom from unnecessary thoughts while engaged in some activity. There are those who disregard the first as some sort of exaggeration, but it is clear that Daikaku and Bukko meant it literally. Westerners who identify consciousness with thought, which is only a movement in it, tend to think that absence of thought would be something like deep sleep or a total annihilation – there would be nothing left at all. Zen teachers are not much concerned with this objection on the intellectual plane; they are concerned with it on the emotional plane, when it seems to a student on the brink that mushin would be a great death. All the koans are designed to wrap thought and feeling into one bundle, which is then thrown out. Something remains, provisionally described in terms of immensity of space,…

The wave

Hokusai’s famous picture of the wave shows men and boats and Mount Fuji. The men and their efforts are details in the great surge of nature. There are four special points from the Zen standpoint: Children think the wave is a thing, a separate body of water moving over the surface of the sea, and different from the other waves and from the sea itself. When they are taught to observe carefully, they find there is nothing to be distinguished as a separate wave5 the wave is a moving phenomenon in the great sea. It still makes sense to speak of a wave, but only as a theoretically separate entity. The wave is about to crash on the boats and on Mount Fuji. The wave cannot crash on Fuji because Fuji is far distant, though it looks as if it is under the wave. There is no paper in the…

Dragon-head snake-tail in Zen

In Chinese mythology the dragon is the transcendent, which lives in watery depths but mounts the heavens at times of storm, showing itself as the flash of lightning tearing the blackness of the clouds. To the snake’s eye (what we should call the worm’s eye) the dragon head is strange and awe-inspiring; it is supported by a mighty body and huge claws which rend the thick clouds of relative experience. There is a phrase, ‘ dragon-head snake-tail’ – a thing of magnificent promise which tails off abruptly. Some great phrase like ‘heaven and I of one root’, or ‘clear and bright for ten thousand miles’, is a dragon head. But if the life, including the way of uttering it, are not in accord with the phrase, it has a snake tail. A dragon’s body must back up the dragon-head phrase, showing strength and inspiration, not necessarily in dramatic posturings but…

Part Two Kamakura Zen

Introduction The Zen tradition is said to be ‘outside the scriptures, not setting up words, a finger direct to the human heart, seeing the nature to be Buddha’. It was brought from India by Bodhidharma, who came to China by sea in AD 520 according to tradition5 one of the koan riddles is the meaning of this journey from the West by the patriarch (p. 119). In China the tradition assumed certain forms which experience showed to be suited to the mind of the people. These forms were called collectively ‘patriarchal Zen’ as distinguished from the ‘Buddha Zen’ of India. Patriarchal Zen mostly concerns stories of Tang dynasty Chinese masters, which were used as koan riddles. After several introductions to Japan, this Zen took firm root in the thirteenth century. But there was a difference between the lines founded by Japanese monks like Eisai and Dogen, who had gone to…

Political background

The Hojo family provided the Regents, the de facto rulers of Japan, for well over a century after Hojo Tokimasa in 1203. It attained power by what would now be called a pre-emptive strike, but ruled in the main effectively and justly. Under the Hojos the country met and repelled two great invasions from the mainland. The greatest figures among the Hojos, Tokiyori and Tokimune, led strict Buddhist lives, with shaven head and practising extreme simplicity. Tokiyori used to investigate the state of the country by travelling around incognito, and was widely respected and revered. When about to die, he sat in the meditation posture, wrote his ‘death poem’ according to Zen tradition and passed away in tranquillity. Tokiyori and Tokimune both mastered Zen, mainly under the instructions of Chinese priests, of whom Daikaku and Bukko were the most prominent. These were of the Rinzai sect, but it is to…

Daikaku

Daikaku is the formal title of a Chinese monk named Tao Lung, pronounced by the Japanese Doryu, and also called by them Rankei. He was born in Szechuan in 1205. Then as now the people speak a dialect different from that of other regions of China. He became a monk at the age of thirteen, and visited various teachers (including Mujun, later the teacher of Bukko) without making a ‘connection’. Finally he met a teacher with whom he practised for a long time. He was set the koan of the water-buffalo going through the window (all of it got through except the tail which stuck). Suddenly one day the age-old illusion vanished like morning mist and he saw the true landscape which had been hidden. This was some time before he was thirty-four, when he met Japanese monks who invited him to Japan, where he arrived in 1246. Daikaku went…

On meditation Zazenron

Zazen is the gate to the great liberation, all dharmas flow out of it, and the thousand practices come from it. The divine powers of wisdom arise from within it, the way of man and of heaven opens out from it. All the Buddhas come and go through this gate, and the Bodhisattva enters his practice by it. Those of the Hinayana stop half-way, and those on the outer paths do not get on to the right road at all despite all their efforts. No doctrine, open or secret, leads to Buddhahood without this practice. Question: What does it mean to say that zazen is the root of all dharmas? Answer: Zen is the inner heart of the Buddha. Right conduct is his outer form, the doctrine is his word, nembutsu (mantra) is his name, but they all come from the Buddha heart and so it is their source. Question:…

Sayings of Daikaku

Zen practice is not clarifying conceptual distinctions, but throwing away one’s preconceived views and notions and the sacred texts and all the rest, and piercing through the layers of coverings over the spring of self behind them. All the holy ones have turned within and sought in the self, and by this went beyond all doubt. To turn within means all the twenty-four hours and in every situation, to pierce one by one through the layers covering the self, deeper and deeper, to a place which cannot be described. It is when thinking comes to an end and making distinctions ceases, when wrong views and ideas disajjpear of themselves without having to be driven forth, when without being- sought the true action and true impulse appear of themselves. It is when one can know what is the truth of the heart. The man resolute in the way must from the…

Bukko

Bukko Zenji (Zen master Buddha-light) was a posthumous title conferred, by the Japanese Emperor, on a Chinese monk whose name was Tsu yuen, pronounced by the Japanese Sogen. He has also the names Mugaku, Shigen and some others. In this book he is called simply Bukko. He was born in 1226, and as a child was always fond of temples and Buddhism. One day when he had accompanied his father to a temple and was playing in the garden, he heard a monk chanting the verse from a famous Taoist classic called Saikondan: The shadow of the bamboo sweeps the steps, But the dust does not stir; The moon’s disc bores into the lake But the water shows no scar. This verse seized on his mind, and he finally made up his mind to renounce the world. When his father died next year, he became a monk, at the age…

Outline of Bukko’s teachings

The way out of life-and-death is not some special technique; the essential thing is to see through to the root of life-and-death. That root is not something that fell from heaven or sprang up from earth; it is at the centre of the functioning of every man, living with his life, dying with his death, becoming a Buddha, making a patriarch. These are all in dependence on it, and one who goes into Zen has to pierce and break through to this thing. What is called Zen sitting is not some sort of operation to be performed, and to take it so is wrong. In our line, it is simply realizing what one’s own true heart really is, and it is necessary to pledge oneself to the true heart. Going into Zen is seeing one’s original nature, and the main thing is to make out what one was before even…

Part Three Kamakura Koans Introduction

The collection of Japanese ‘on-the-instant’ koans, called Shonan- kattoroku, is almost unknown even to specialists. It is a record of Zen interviews given to lay pupils, from the very beginning of Zen in Japan in the thirteenth century up to the sixteenth century. The text has survived only by a series of unusual circumstances, set out briefly in a previous section and given in detail in two of the appendices to this book. There is a brief reference to it in Hayashi’s History of the Japanese Zen Sects (1938), where two of the stories are quoted, with Imai Fukuzan’s booklet as the source. In a collection of Zen stories published in 1951, the head of Kenninji temple included one story, amending the old-fashioned Japanese in places, and including the sassho test which Imai had put to the story. So Imai must have been the source here also. In the note…

The Heart Sutra

The Heart Sutra is frequently referred to in Zen Buddhism; in some monasteries it is recited at every meal, and the monks are expected to know it by heart. There are some minor variations, but the Sutra consists of a little over two hundred Chinese characters, each of which is a monosyllable. Here is a translation which follows the commentary of a well-known Zen master of this century, Obora Ryoun. ‘When the Bodhisattva Kannon was practising the profound Prajna Paramita wisdom he saw all the five aggregates to be Emptiness, and passed beyond suffering. O disciple Shariputra, form is not different from Emptiness, Emptiness is not different from form; form is Emptiness and Emptiness is form; and so also with sensation, thinking, impulse and consciousness. All these things, Shariputra, have the character of Emptiness, neither born nor dying, neither defiled nor pure, neither increased nor lessened. So in Emptiness there…

Zen and the Ways part four

Introduction What are called the Ways are fractional expressions of Zen in limited fields such as the fighting arts of sword or spear, literary arts like poetry or calligraphy, and household duties like serving tea, polishing, or flower arrangement. These actions become Ways when practice is done not merely for the immediate result but also with a view to purifying, calming and focusing the psycho-physical apparatus, to attain to some degree of Zen realization and express it. This is not a book on the Ways, but on Zen influence in them, and little is said here about technique. It is an axiom that what applies in one Way has some application to others. Some of the examples are taken from judo, in which I can draw upon my own experience as a student and later as a teacher, and which is the most widely practised field of a Way in…

Zen and the Ways

Zen masters are not keen on verbal definitions of Buddha-nature, because they are at once converted by a hearer into mental constructs like the other mental constructs which constitute his world. As such they are on an illusory basis and become obstructions to actual Buddha- realization. However, something is said of Buddha-nature in expression: Buddha-without- Monju (wisdom) holding a sword (power) mental-constructs (2) (3) = Void Fugen {compassion) holding a lotus (beauty) Wisdom and compassion are mental constructs of the highest clarity and serenity, through which as through a very fine veil the Void is seen and expressed. When the last veil is removed there is nothing to be said or thought, for there are no mental constructs with which to think or speak. See the story ‘Painting the Nature’, on p. 107. This point comes again and again in Zen. (1) The phrase ‘no mental constructs’ can be bewildering…

Ri and ji

Ri and ji are well-known terms in Buddhism, meaning respectively universal truth and a particular event. In the Ways they have special meanings. Ri is something like inspired following of the inner lines of the universal flow: it includes feeling-into the true nature of the material at hand, the space-time relations, and also the moral situation. The true inner lines of a situation are expressions of Buddha-nature, and most clearly appreciated as beauty and power. To do something ‘muri’ or without-ri is to force a result, using unnatural and therefore ultimately wasteful and tiring means. To shout someone down in an argument, to use advantages of wealth, prestige or physical strength to override the legitimate interests of others, to chop wood across the grain, to bang the keys of a typewriter – all these are examples of muri. It has been said that muri is doing things without love for…

Shin and ki

Shin is the technical word for ‘heart’, including all we call mind and more. Ki is something like ‘vital spirit’. An example is better than theory: in picking up a teacup or throwing an opponent, shin is the notion of doing it, including the emotional colouring, ki is the ‘feel’ of initiating and continuing the movement conformably to distances and timing. What is technically called strength is grasping the teacup or making the throw: ki is still functioning, but with untrained people it tends to be felt less clearly when strength is being exerted. These things may be pure and in conformity with the cosmic principle (ri), or impure and centred round an individual self. When shin is pure, thoughts do not arise from selfishness or passion, and inspiration passes through it. When impure, it is distorted and dark: everything has to pass through filters of ‘will this be good…

Isshin and zanshin

Isshin (one-heart) means to throw oneself wholly into the action without any other thought at all. Zanshin (remaining-heart) means some awareness still remaining. Some of the texts give both, some of them do not mention zanshin at all, and some of them mention it but say that the heading ‘zanshin’ means that there must be no zanshin. With a spear, isshin is to commit one’s body wholly to the thrust; in a judo throw, it means to throw one’s body and heart at the opponent. If the action is technically defective, or the opponent more skilful, it will miss; then one is generally in an unfavourable position. On the other hand, the mere impetuosity and immediacy and completeness of the movement may have so upset him that he cannot utilize his momentary advantage. Still, in theory might it not be better to take into account possible failure, and keep something…

Not setting the mind

The mind turns in accordance with the ten thousand things; The pivot on which it turns is verily hard to know. Zen verse (much quoted in the Ways) Like many of the Buddhist verses and aphorisms, this verse about not letting the mind get set, but keeping it freely turning on a pivot, seems vaguely ‘wise’, but is soon abandoned in practice. A fencer comes out without setting his mind on his opponent’s techniques or his own, and his movement becomes slack, so that he gets a hit on the head at once. The calligrapher goes to write without letting his mind be set on the proper way of writing the character; the result is a sprawling mess. It is true that in this last case, he may persuade himself that he has written well, in an unorthodox manner; but the archer who has missed by a mile has no…

Thrust without thrusting

Do not thrust with the mind, Do not thrust with the hands, Let the spear make the thrust – Thrust without thrusting. From the Hundred Verses of the Spear This verse has a relation to the interviews described in koan no. 44 of the Shonankattoroku, where the Zen teacher says, ‘No spear in the hands, no hands on the spear. If you don’t understand, your art of the spear is a little affair of the hands alone.’ The interview with Gio (arrived in Japan 1246) is probably the first reference to Zen in the Ways in Japanese literature . There is a tendency to read a contradiction like ‘thrust without thrusting’ as a poetic conceit. Perhaps it means that the thrust should be in a calm spirit, without passionate desire to hit the opponent? The normal thrust after all includes, in fact is based on, this desire, so perhaps a…

Falling

A drunken man falls from his carriage without hurting himself seriously, remarked Chuang-tsu over two thousand years ago. This is because his body is relaxed and his spirit ‘entire’. But actually confronting a fall, this knowledge is no use5 the body automatically contracts and stiffens. A judo student has to be trained to fall, to meet the ground all together instead of trying to keep off the ground and taking all the shock on one small point such as the wrist. After a time he can meet a fall on the judo mat, and if the teacher says ‘Fall’ he can do so. Still something is lacking. One day the teacher comes up behind him quietly, and pulls him sharply over. If he falls then properly, it is ‘part of him’, he does it without knowing what he is doing. If the surprise makes him stiffen up, his training is…

Faith

If you feel that the teacher is a real teacher Then give up your own ideas, and learn. First verse of the Hundred Verses of the Spear If a pupil comes to him simply to get a little skill in the art, the teacher finds his strong point, what comes most naturally to him as he now is, and develops that. It gives quick results and fulfils the end. But if someone comes who wants to master the art and give himself to it, the instruction is often the reverse. The teacher has to find out the weak points, and by special training bring them up to the level of the rest. Then he develops the whole range together. This kind of training produces in the pupil at various times a crisis of faith: faith in the teacher, and faith in himself. The teacher has to modify his instruction according…

Dragon masks

With age, a judo expert’s speed begins to decline, and he has to find means to offset this against up-and-coming opponents. One of them is to establish a psychological ascendency over a younger man who may be actually stronger in fighting ability. This can be done by preventing the junior from estimating the respective standards of ability. An experienced man can make an estimate easily in most cases by merely looking at the movement, but a young man generally cannot do it without something definite to work on, and he can be prevented from getting the information. The senior’s attacking policy is to attempt to throw only when it is certain to succeed – in other words, never to fail in a throw. This often means waiting for quite a time till the opponent takes some risk and so gives an opportunity. But promising young judo men take risks all…

Texts of the Ways

Introduction The secret scrolls of the various Ways, generally given only to graduating pupils, were mainly memoranda of instruction given verbally. They were made deliberately obscure so that outsiders who might see them would not be able to understand. They are mostly in brief paragraphs with a heading, or else in verse. Sometimes there is only the heading, with under it the words ‘oral tradition (kuden). There is a good deal of repetition – some of the verses, for instance, are identical in scrolls of sword, spear and archery. The extracts given here have not to my knowledge been translated before. I have tried to choose representative sections which are yet not so obscure as to defy translation. Readers who are themselves engaged in some activity as a Way will be able to find an application in them. I have chosen from the traditions of the martial schools because these…

Heihokadensho

About AD 1630 It was said of old: ‘The fighting man is an ill-omened instrument$ the Way of Heaven has no love for him, yet has to make use of him, and this is the Way of Heaven.’ The bow and arrow, the swords short and long, are unblessed tools of fighting and of ill omen. Therefore as the Heavenly Way is a way of giving life to things, and these are the contrary, being means of killing, they are really instruments of ill omen. They can be said to take part in transgression of the Way of Heaven. And yet, when it is unavoidable, making use of them to kill people is also said to be the Way of Heaven. How can this be? With the breeze of spring, flowers bloom and their colours vie with each other: with the frost of autumn, leaves fall and the trees are…

Songs of the Way of the Spear

Hozoin School (about AD 1600) By what I did yesterday, I win today; This is the virtue of practice. Remember the old saying, The plan for a day is a cock’s crow, The plan for a life is something serious. In the knightly arts, first see that you yourself are right, And after that think of defeating an opponent. The unskilled man does not know his own faults. And yet dreams vainly of defeating another. The Way is first of all about one’s own defects; After that, you can defeat others. Without knowing the stains and faults in one’s own self, How empty to dream of victory over others! In the knightly arts, if a man’s will is right There is no doubt of his ultimate victory. Don’t think to win just by force; There is hard in the soft, soft in the hard. ‘Softness is just weakness’, some say;…

Jujutsu school, late eighteenth century

Shin-no-Shin-To-Ryu Some who have trained at fencing with wooden swords have worked out a trick of striking at the space just in front of the opponent’s head (instead of squarely on top of the head in the orthodox cut). In this way they catch him with the very tip of the sword, and can make the attack from a little further off, with a gain in reach. But there would be nothing like this in actual combat. How often is an enemy despatched by a cut of only a couple of inchesPAnd especially if he w ere in armour, he would probably not even be wounded. It is well said that one should think deeply and train the heart, for the principal thing is the ri. When the enemy comes jumping at you, flying through the air like a bird, the spirit has to be perfectly controlled and the inner…

Tengugeijutsuron

Most of the scrolls of the Ways are at least 80 per cent technical, and the theoretical presentation – such as it is – is overwhelmingly in terms of Zen. There are some other influences, for example from Shingon Buddhism and from Taoism, especially in the jujutsu schools in the eighteenth century the Confucian element shows itself more and more strongly. In the eclectic Japanese manner, these various traditions are mingled and not felt to contradict each other on essential points. It must be remembered that in general the traditions themselves were tolerant $ the Zen priest Takuan, for example, approved of the Confucian ideal for men in the world. The Ways also were not regarded as necessarily distinct. A teacher of the Jigenryu school of the sword, which derived from (or was transmitted by) a Zen master, Zenkichi, at the end of the sixteenth century, taught etiquette, archery, horsemanship,…

Reading a Zen story

The following is a story which has been reproduced in several anthologies since it first appeared in my own First Zen Reader in 1960. I have sometimes heard it discussed, and it seems that many people miss half the point. If one is attracted to a story, it is proper to read it carefully, and find out whether there is perhaps more in it than the obvious surface point, important though that is. Here is the story. At the end of it a ‘test’ will be proposed. A young man who had a bitter disappointment in life went to a remote monastery and said to the abbot: ‘I am disillusioned with life and wish to attain enlightenment to be freed from these sufferings. But I have no capacity for sticking long at anything. I could never do long years of meditation and study and austerity; I should relapse and be…

Tesshu

Tesshu was a fencing master of the late nineteenth century, who had also completed the full course of Zen under the great master Tekisui of Tenryuji. An inquirer came to him asking for a discourse on the Rinzairoku classic. ‘The Rinzairoku? Why, sermons are given on it regularly at Enkakuji; you’d better go and hear Master Kosen there.’ ‘I have been to hear him, but I still don’t feel I really understand it. Now I know that you are an expert in fencing as well as Zen, and I have done quite a bit of fencing myself, so I thought perhaps it would be easier to understand if I had an explanation from you.’ ‘All right, then you had better change into fencing gear’, and overruling the guest’s surprise he made him practise fencing till he was pouring with sweat and exhausted. After they had bathed in cold water and…

Disadvantages

A seventeen-year-old judo student who was very promising lost his right arm in an accident. When he recovered he began to go to the judo training hall again, and practise with the loose sleeve tucked into his belt. He could not throw anyone except a few friends who let him do so; when he told them to try hard his defences were completely broken, and he could not get near to a throw himself. His parents consulted with the judo teacher, and they made attempts to interest him in something else. ‘You have a fine judo spirit,’ the teacher told him, ‘and now you can use that spirit to excel in something where you don’t need two arms. You might try table tennis – show them what the judo spirit can do in that.’ But his interest could not be diverted from judo. This sometimes happens – for a time…

Endurance

In most of the martial arts there is a ‘cold practice’ in the middle of the winter when the students practise an hour or so with all the windows wide open. Some artists and poets do something similar. One poem composed on such an occasion was: Meditating that the Buddhas of the three worlds Are seated all around us, We do not feel the cold. The chess champions have their own practice of endurance – it consists in the ability to sit motionless for hours together. I once watched the then champion Yoshio Kimura playing a championship game. He sat at the board like a statue, with his eyes half shut. His younger opponent was very fidgety – because there was only one move which Kimura could reasonably make. However, he did not make it for ten minutes. In the end his opponent became so irritable with these delaying tactics…

Inner archery

Early in this century a Japanese Zen master who lived in a temple in the country had as his pupil the wife of the greengrocer of a near-by village. Among his other pupils was a Cabinet Minister, who used to visit him once a week to sit in meditation for two hours and then have an interview. A newspaper sent a reporter to visit this teacher, and the pressman remarked, ‘Why do you waste yourself in a remote place like this? Wouldn’t it be better to come near the capital? Then instead of the greengrocer’s wife, you could have more pupils like the Cabinet Minister.’ In his article, the reporter described ruefully how the teacher had scolded him for this remark. ‘It is not a question of being the greengrocer’s wife or being a Cabinet Minister, but of not being a greengrocer’s wife and not being a Cabinet Minister. We…

Teaching methods

There are numerous stories concerned with a man – perhaps a farmer – completely ignorant of fencing who has to fight a duel against an expert. He consults with a master of the Way, a retired fencer, who tells him what to do. In many of the stories the master tells him that he must make up his mind that he has no chance of saving his own life; the best he can do is kill his adversary at the same time. He makes the farmer sit and meditate on this for some time, until at last the latter says, ‘I am resolved now – there’s no escape for me, and all I want to do is to preserve honour by taking his life for mine.’ Then the master goes with him to the courtyard where the duel is to be fought the next day. The master looks for some…

Janken

A soldier has a battle to face the next day, or a student an important examination, or a sportsman an important contest. He knows there is no more he can do now; he should simply have a good night’s rest. Yet he remains awake. Silly. Reason tells him that to worry about what may happen tires him and makes failure more likely. Yet in spite of all, he remains awake and in tension. Even his deepest self-interest, supported by reason and persuasion, cannot manipulate the streams of thought. A second-best way is simply to accept the condition. An experienced duellist was sitting up with friends playing cards before the encounter. One of them said ‘Don’t you think you should turn in? Your opponent is already in bed.’ ‘Yes,’ was the reply, ‘in bed but not asleep.’ This may suffice when a man’s concern is for himself alone, and when the…

The rat

A fencing teacher on a journey visited a temple, and was given hospitality by the priest whom he knew. The food was served to him when he arrived, laid before him respectfully by a small boy who then sat on the other side of the room perfectly still while he ate. On the hot summer evening the sliding doors into the garden were open, and the master noticed a rat creeping stealthily in. The boy sat like a statue as it passed in front of him, then suddenly lunged forward, caught it and flung it out with one movement. The master went on eating with no remark. Next day he asked the priest, ‘Who is that boy?’ ‘An orphan’, was the reply, ‘whom we took in because no one would have him. He has no inclination to Buddhism5 he is a very wild boy whose only interest is in fencing….

Music

In the East the highest kind of music is that which sends the listener into samadhi. The silence which follows is an essential part of the music. The audience should be in the state of people who are watching the sun setting into the sea – they forget the circumstances which brought them there, they forget words like ‘sun’ and ‘sea’, they forget their own names and individualities. After the sun has gone, for a time there is no impulse to move – certainly not to clap or applaud. A Far Eastern tradition says that Indian music derives from that played by the gods in the Lumbini Grove at the time of the birth of Buddha. The ancient Chinese chin – a sort of horizontal harp with seven strings – is audible to only a very short range round the player. The chin has nacre studs set at intervals along…

The bell

This was when Ekido was abbot of the Zen temple Tentoku-in, in the nineteenth century. One morning he heard the dawn bell being rung and after a little he called his attendant from the next room and asked. ‘Who is ringing the bell this morning?’ The attendant said it was a newly entered boy. The abbot later called the boy and asked, ‘When you rang the dawn bell today, what were you thinking about?’ ‘Nothing special. I was just ringing the bell.’ The abbot said, ‘No, there must have been something in your mind. Well anyway, when you ring the bell, always do it as you did today. It was no ordinary ringing.’ Then the boy said, ‘I once heard that whatever we do, it must be service of the Buddha. I was told to meditate on the things as Buddha. So this morning I was thinking that the bell…

The fortune-teller

Yagyu Munenori was a great student of fencing technique, and there was a standing invitation to any challenger to come to his house and have a contest with him with wooden swords. Afterwards Yagyu used to discuss fencing with the opponent over a meal ; even if the other had lost, there was often something to be learnt from his techniques. There were many unorthodox styles of fencing which relied mainly on surprise, and it was essential for the teacher of fencing to the rulers of Japan to know about all of them. Some of the wandering swordsmen were wild figures, like the famous Musashi who used to dress almost like a tramp. One day an extraordinary figure appeared to challenge Yagyu. He was very thin and held the sword in an unusual way. There were at the time two main styles of contest technique: to wait cautiously for an…

The pencil stub

 An old lady in a country village brought up her little grandson, both of whose parents had died. She had little money and had a hard time doing it; the village were made aware of the extent of her sacrifices, and she did not have many friends. Living near by was a retired master of calligraphy, a man far advanced on the Way. He took an interest in the education of the village children, and told the old lady that her grandson was bright and should go on to a university. When the time came he said, ‘If you and he are willing, I will give you an introduction to the head of a university in the capital whom I know well, where they have a hostel for country students.’ The grandmother told him, ‘Of course I shall be very lonely, but for the boy’s sake I agree.’ As the…

Imai Fukuzan’s Introduction to Shonan-katto-roku

The origin of warrior Zen in Kamakura, and in the whole of the eastern part of Japan, goes back to the training of warrior pupils by Eisai (Senko Kokushi). But it was the training of warriors and priests by two great Chinese masters, Daikaku and Bukko, which became the Zen style of the Kamakura temples. There were three streams in Kamakura Zen: scriptural Zen; on-the-instant (shikin) Zen; Zen adapted to the pupil (ki-en Zen). Scriptural Zen derives from Eisai, founder of Jufukuji in Kamakura in 1215, and of Kenninji in Kyoto. But at that time it was rare to find in Kamakura any samurai who had literary attainments, so that the classical koans from Chinese records of patriarchs could hardly be given to them. The teacher therefore selected passages from various sutras for the warriors, and for monks also. These specially devised scriptural Zen koans used by Eisai at Kamakura…

Extracts from Imai Fukuzan’s Introduction to Warrior Zen

EXTRACTS FROM IMAI FUKUZAN’S INTRODUCTION TO WARRIOR ZEN According to the Nyudosanzenki (Records of Lay Zen) — the postscript of the first volume of the manuscript of Zenko and the introduction to volume eight of the Kencho manuscripts — the Zen training of warriors at Kamakura fell into two stages. Up to the end of the Muromachi period (1573), incidents from the training of the early warrior disciples were set as koans to beginners, and only afterwards were the classical koans concerning Buddhas and patriarchs used extensively. The incidents from the Zen training of warriors were the kind recorded in the Shonankattoroku. But after the end of the Muromachi era, it became common among teachers to present warriors with nothing but classical koans from the very beginning, and those who used the incidents from warrior training as koans gradually became very few. So that the three hundred odd koans of…

Daikaku’s one-word Sutra – Koan 4

At the beginning of the Kencho era (1249), ‘Old Buddha’ Daikaku was invited from Kyoto by the shogun Tokiyori to spread Zen in the East of Japan. Some priests and laymen of other sects were not at all pleased at this, and out of jealousy spread it around that the teacher was a spy sent to Japan by the Mongols; gradually more and more people began to believe it. At the time the Mongols were in fact sending emissaries to Japan, and the shogun’s government, misled by the campaign of rumours, transferred the teacher to Koshu. He was not the least disturbed, but gladly followed the karma which led him away. Some officials there who were firm believers in repetition of the formula of the Lotus, or in recitation of the name of Amida, one day came to him and said: ‘The Heart Sutra which is read in the Zen…

Bukko’s No-Word Sutra – Koan 5

Ryo-A, a priest of the Tsurugaoka Hachiman shrine, came to Magaku (National teacher Bukko, who succeeded Daikaku) and told him the story of Daikaku’s one-word sutra. He said: ‘I do not ask about the six or seven syllables recited by other sects, but what is the one word of Zen?’ The teacher said: ‘Our school does not set up any word; its dharma is a special transmission outside scriptures, a truth transmitted from heart to heart. If you can penetrate through to that, your whole life will be a dharani (Buddhist mantra), and your death will be a dharani. What would you be wanting with a word or half a word? The old master Daikaku went deep into the forest and put one word down there, and now the whole Zen world is tearing itself to pieces on the thorns, trying to find it. If the reverend Ryo-A before me…

Daikaku’s One-Robe Zen – Koan 6

A priest from the headquarters of the regent Yasutoki visited Kenchoji and remarked to Daikaku: ‘Eisai and Gyoyu began the propagation of Zen here in Kamakura, but the two greatest teachers of the way of the patriarchs have been Dogen (of the Soto sect) and Bennen (later National Teacher Shoichi). Both of them came to Kamakura at the invitation of regent Tokiyori to teach Zen, but both left before a year was out. So there are not many among the warriors here who have much understanding of Zen. In fact some are so ignorant about it that they think the character for Zen – written as they think by combining the characters for “garment” and “single” – means just that. They believe that Zen monks of India in the mountains practised special austerities, and even in winter wore only one cotton robe, and that the name of the sect arose…

Bukko’s Loin-Cloth Zen – Variant on Koan 6.

On the staff of Yasutsura Genbansuke, a minister of Hojo Yasutoki, was one Morikatsu who was a nyudo student of Zen. Once when he came to Enkakuji he met one of Bukko’s attendants named Isshin, and said to him: ‘That stupid crowd at Kamakura don’t know how to write the name of our sect with the proper character, but get it mixed up with the character for “loin-cloth”. They’re an odd lot.’ The attendant was distressed that people should thus casually degrade the word Zen, and mentioned the matter to the teacher, who laughed and said: ‘Loin-cloth is indeed the great concern of our Zen gate, and those Kamakura soldiers must not be condemned for lack of learning. What gives the life to men is the power of the front gate (of men and women), and when they die, it ends with the (excretion at the) back gate. Is not…

The Bucket without a Bottom – Koan 7

(Imai’s note: The nun Mujaku, whose lay name was Chiyono, was a woman of Akita who married and had one daughter. In 1276 when she was thirty-four her husband died, and she could not get over the grief. She became a nun, and trained under Bukko. The story is that on the evening of a fifteenth day of August, when she was filling her lacquer flower-bucket where the valley stream comes down, the bottom fell out; seeing the water spilling she had a flash of insight, and made a poem on it to present to the teacher. Later he set her a classical koan, Three Pivot-phrases of Oryu, and examined her minutely on it, and she was able to meet the questions. Again she continued interviews with him for a long time, and in the end he ‘passed over the robe and bowl’, namely authorized her as a successor to…

Jizo coming out of the Hall – Koan 9

When Nitta Yoshisada’s soldiers were burning the country-side in 1331, they attacked the Kamakura temples with fire, and Kenchoji was set alight. It is said that the monk in charge of the main hall put the great image of Jizo on his back and carried it to safety. The Jizo was sixteen foot in height and breadth, and weighed over 800 pounds. The doors of the Buddha-hall made an opening of only eight foot. How did the monk carry the Jizo out through that opening?  TESTS (1) Surely all of you are men of mighty strength? Now try and see! Carry on your back an 800-pound Jizo. (2) How do you carry out a sixteen-foot image through an eight-foot opening? Say! This began to be used as a koan at the interviews of Master Ichigen, the 115th teacher at Kenchoji. T.P.L  

The Dragon Crest – Koan 15

During a break in the gardening, some of the gardener monks were talking under the pines in the garden behind the abbot’s quarters, and it was recalled how in the old days Hojo Tokimasa (1138–1215; regent 1203–5) as a young man went into retreat at a temple on Enoshima Island, praying for lasting success in his campaigns. On the last night of the twenty-one days’ retreat, a beautiful princess in a green robe appeared and prophesied, ‘Your line will have the supremacy; the tide of glory is rising to your gate.’ She changed into a twenty-foot snake and entered the sea, leaving three fish-like scales on the shore, which Tokimasa took and made into a luminous banner. And so it is said that the great temples of Kenchoji, Enkakuji and others have three fish-scales in their temple crests. Then the monks were arguing about the dragon carved on the pillar…

Tokimune’s Thing below the Navel – Koan 18

(When Tokimune received the news that the Mongol armada was poised to attack Japan, he went in full armour to see Bukkoo his teacher, and said: ‘The great thing has come,’ to which the teacher replied: ‘Can you somehow avoid it?’ Tokimune calmly stamped his feet, shook his whole body and gave a tremendous shout of Katzu! The teacher said: ‘A real lion cub, a real lion roar. Dash straight forward and don’t look round!’ After the defeat of the Mongols, Tokimune built the great monastery of Enkakuji, and installed in it the representation of Jizo-of-a-thousand-forms. Bukko became the first teacher there. Tokimune organized a great religious service for the souls of the dead of both sides. Soon afterwards he died at the age of thirty-three. In the funeral oration Bukko said that he had been a Bodhisattva – ‘for nearly twenty years he ruled without showing joy or anger;…

The Gate by which all the Buddhas come into the World – Koan 19

Originally Enkakuji was a place forbidden to women, with the exception that unmarried women of a samurai family who were training at Zen were allowed to come and go through the gate. After 1334 a rule was made that unless a woman had attained to ‘seeing the nature’ she was not allowed to go to the Great Light Hall. In time it became the custom that the keeper of the gate, when a woman applied to go through, would present a test question. According to one tradition from that time (recorded in the commentary to Sorinzakki – Imai), five tests were in use at the gate of Enkakuji: TESTS (1) The gate has many thresholds: even Buddhas and patriarchs cannot get through. If you would enter, give the pass-word. (2) The strong iron door is hardly to be opened. Let one of mighty power tear it off its hinges. (3)…

The Rite of the Treasury of Space – Koan 20

The officer Nagayasu, who had a position at Jufukuji temple, remarked to Bukko’s attendant Eibin: ‘When the founder, National Teacher Bukko, came to Kamakura and began to teach at Jufukuji, he was so ridiculously short that many of the warriors despised him. At that time they greatly respected men of commanding physique, and had a corresponding contempt for a poor one. They say that the teacher regretted this, and undertook to perform the Esoteric rite called Treasury of Space, for one hundred days. When he first came into the hall to begin, his height was marked by a notch on the pillar in front of the hall, and when the period of a hundred days was up, his height was again measured. He was four inches taller. ‘Now in your case too, I can see that as you are very short, some of the warriors are bound to despise you….

The Nembutsu Robe – Koan 25

The Shogun Yoriie detested the followers of the Nembutsu (recitation of the name of Amida Buddha in the formula Namu-A-mi-da-butsu), and in May 1213 he issued a decree forbidding the recitation. He ordered Yashiro Hiki to investigate travellers, and if he found any priest of the Nembutsu persuasion, to take his robe and burn it. To carry out this order, Yashiro inspected travellers at the side of Mandokoro bridge, and if he found any priest of Nembutsu, he stripped off his robe and burnt it. If he discovered he was breaking the decree banning Nembutsu, he arrested him and threw him into prison. At this time there was in Ise a Nembutsu follower called Shonenbo (the Name-reciting priest), and he came to Kamakura and performed the recitation there. Yashiro arrested him and went to burn his robe. Shonenbo said, ‘This robe is the banner of the Three Treasures, it is…

The very first Jizo – Koan 31

Sakawa Koresada, a direct retainer of the Uesugi family, entered the main hall at Kenchoji and prayed to the Jizo-of-a-Thousand-Forms there. Then he asked the attendant monk in charge of the hall: ‘Of these thousand forms of Jizo, which is the very first Jizo?’ The attendant said, ‘In the breast of the retainer before me are a thousand thoughts and ten thousand imaginings; which of these is the very first one?’ The samurai was silent. The attendant said again, ‘Of the thousand forms of Jizo, the very first Jizo is the Buddha-lord who is always using those thousand forms.’ The warrior said, ‘Who is this Buddha-lord?’ The attendant suddenly caught him and twisted his nose. The samurai immediately had a realization. TESTS (1) Which is the very first Jizo out of the thousand-formed Jizo? (2) Which is the very first out of the thousand thoughts and ten thousand imaginings? (3)…

The flower hall on Buddha’s birthday – Koan 41

No. 41. The flower hall on Buddha’s birthday The nun Mydan of Tokeiji practised Zen in interviews with Tanei, the 74th teacher at Enkakuji, who set her as koans the poems composed by Yodo (5th abbess of Tokeiji and a former princess) and her attendants. These poems were on the theme of gathering and arranging the flowers on the birthday of the Buddha. The poem of Yodo is: Decorate the heart of the beholder, For the Buddha of the flower hall Is nowhere else. TESTS By what do you recognize the heart of the beholder? Say how you would decorate the flower hall. If it is to worship a Buddha who is nowhere else than in the heart, then what do you want with a flower hall? Say! The poem of Ika, a former court lady is: Throw away into the street the years of the past. What is born…

Sermon – Koan 42

No. 42. Sermon The head monk at Hokokuji temple was deaf and could not hear the preaching of the Dharma. He asked to take charge of the sutras as librarian, and for more than ten years he perused them. But he found that the accounts of the Buddha’s life in the various sutras did not agree, and he asked Abbot Hakudo, the fifth master of the temple, which was right. The Abbot said, ‘What is in the sutras is as a finger pointing to the moon or a net to catch fish. What is a Zen man doing muddying his mind with sutra-phrases and inferences about various teachings and wanting to know which is right and which is wrong? The head monk’s practice is itself the Buddha’s practice; when the head monk left home that was itself the Buddha’s leaving home. When the head monk attained the Way, that was…

Wielding the spear with hands empty – Koan 44

No. 44. Wielding the spear with hands empty (Imai’s note: Nanjo Masatomo, a master of the spear, was at Kenchoji to worship, and afterwards spoke with priest Gid about using a spear on horseback. Gid said, ‘Your Honour is indeed well versed in the art of the spear. But until you have known the state of wielding the spear with hands empty, you will not penetrate to the ultimate secret of the art.’ Nanjo said, ‘What do you mean?’ The teacher said, ‘No spear in the hands, no hands on the spear.’ The spear master did not understand. The teacher said further, ‘If you don’t understand, your art of the spear is a little affair of the hands alone.’) In December of 1256 Fukuzumi Hideomi, a government official, was given the koan ‘wielding the spear with hands empty’. He wrestled furiously with this without being able to attain the state,…

The night interview of Nun Myotei – Koan 52

No. 52. The night interview of Nun Myotei (Imai’s note: Myotei was a widow and a woman well known for her strength of character. She trained for some years under Kimon, the 150th Master of Enkakuji; on a chance visit to the temple she had had an experience while listening to a sermon by him on the Diamond Sutra. In the year 1568 she took part in the Rohatsu training week.) (This is the most severe training week of the year; it is at the beginning of December, when according to tradition the Buddha meditated six days and nights, then looked at the morning star and attained full realization. There is almost continuous meditation broken only by interviews with the teacher, sutra chanting, meals and tea; this goes on for a week, with very little or no sleep according to the temple. On the morning after the last night’s meditation…

The picture of beauty – Koan 64

No. 64. The picture of beauty In 1299 when Fukada Sadatomo came to Kenchoji for a ceremony, he met the teacher in a room where there happened to be a picture of the contemporary Sung dynasty beauty Rei Shojo. He asked Master Saikan, ‘Who is that?’ The teacher replied, ‘It is said it happens to be Rei Shojo.’ Sadatomo looked at the picture admiringly and remarked, ‘That picture is powerfully painted and yet of the utmost delicacy. Is that woman now in the Sung country (China)?’ The teacher said, ‘What do you mean, in the Sung? Now, here, in Japan.’ The noble said, ‘And where is that?’ The master said loudly, ‘Lord Sadatomo!’ The noble looked up. ‘And where is that?’ said the teacher. Sadatomo grasped the point and bowed. TEST What did Lord Sadatomo grasp? This became a koan at Kenchoji from the time of Doan, the 105th master…

The Great Katzu! of Master Toden – Koan 68

No. 68. The Great Katzu! of Master Toden Yoriyasu was a swaggering and aggressive samurai. (Imai’s note: In the Nirayama manuscript of Bukedoshinshu and in some other accounts the name is given as Yorihara.) In the spring of 1341 he was transferred from Kofu to Kamakura, where he visited Master Toden, the 45th teacher at Kenchoji, to ask about Zen. The teacher said, ‘It is to manifest directly the Great Action in the hundred concerns of life. When it is loyalty as a samurai, it is the loyalty of Zen. “Loyalty” is written with the Chinese character made up of “centre” and “heart”, so it means the lord in the centre of the man. There must be no wrong passions. But when this old priest looks at the samurai today, there are some whose heart centre leans towards name and money, and others where it is towards wine and lust,…

The paper sword – Koan 69

No. 69. The paper sword In 1331 when Nitta Yoshisada was fighting against Hojo Sadatoki, a chief retainer of the Hojo family, named Sakurada Sadakuni, was slain. His wife Sawa wished to pray for the dead man; she cut off her hair and entered Tokeiji as the nun Shotaku. For many years she devoted herself to Zen under Daisen, the 17th master at Enkakuji, and in the end she became the 3rd teacher of Tokeiji. In the Rohatsu training week of December 1338 she was returning from her evening interview with the teacher at Enkakuji, when on the way a man armed with a sword saw her and was attracted by her beauty. He threatened her with the sword and came to rape her. The nun took out a piece of paper and rolled it up, then thrust it like a sword at the man’s eyes. He became unable to…

Heaven and earth broken up – Koan 70

No. 70. Heaven and earth broken up Tadamasa, a senior retainer of Hojo Takatoki the Regent, had the Buddhist name Anzan (quiet mountain). He was a keen Zen follower and for twenty-three years came and went to the meditation hall for laymen at Kenchoji. When the fighting broke out everywhere in 1331, he was wounded in one engagement, but in spite of the pain galloped to Kenchoji to see Sozan, the 27th teacher there. A tea ceremony was going on at Kenchoji, and the teacher seeing the man in armour come in, quickly put a teacup in front of him and said, ‘How is this?’ The warrior at once crushed it under his foot and said, ‘Heaven and earth broken up altogether.’ The teacher said, ‘When heaven and earth are broken up, how is it with you?’ Anzan stood with his hands crossed over his breast. The teacher hit him,…

Painting the nature – Koan 74

No. 74. Painting the nature Ekichu, the 7th master of Jufukuji, was famous as a painter. One day Nobumitsu came to see him and asked whether he could paint the fragrance described in the famous line ‘After walking through flowers, the horse’s hoof is fragrant.’ The teacher drew a horse’s hoof and a butterfly fluttering round it (attracted by the fragrance). Then Nobumitsu quoted the line ‘Spring breeze over the river bank’ and asked for a picture of the breeze. The teacher drew a branch of willow waving. Nobumitsu cited the famous Zen phrase, ‘A finger direct to the human heart, See the nature to be Buddha.’ He asked for a picture of the heart. The teacher picked up the brush and flicked a spot of ink onto Nobumitsu’s face. The warrior was surprised and annoyed, and the teacher rapidly sketched the angry face. Then Nobumitsu asked for a picture…

The copy – Koan 80

No. 80. The copy The head monk of Daitetsudo training temple came to Gyokuzan, the 21st master at Kenchoji, and saluted him. He then asked whether he might copy out the sermons on the Rinzairoku which had been given by Daikaku, the founder of Kenchoji. The teacher sat silent for a good time, and then said: ‘Have you copied it?’ ‘Why,’ said the head monk, ‘I have not yet had the loan of it.’ The teacher replied: ‘Rinzai’s Zen is communicated from heart to heart — what should you want with writing? If you feel you want to have something in writing, take Mount Ashigara as the brush and Yui shore as the inkstone, and make your copy.’ The head monk gave a Katzu! shout and said: ‘I have made my copy.’ TESTS How can the writing of the founder be copied by a shout? Try a Katzu! yourself and…

The sermon of Nun Shido – Koan 87

No. 87. The sermon of Nun Shido At the Rohatsu training week of 1304 at Enkakuji, Master Tokei (‘Peach-tree Valley’ — the fourth teacher of Enkakuji) gave his formal approval (inka) as a teacher to the nun Shido, the founder of Tokeiji. The head monk did not approve of the inka being granted, and asked a question to test her: ‘In our line, one who receives the inka gives a discourse on the Rinzairoku classic. Can the nun teacher really brandish the staff of the Dharma in the Dharma-seat?’ She faced him, drew out the ten-inch knife carried by all women of the warrior class, and held it up: ‘Certainly a Zen teacher of the line of the patriarch should go up on the high seat and speak on the book. But I am a woman of the warrior line and I should declare our teaching when really face to…

The Knight patriarch coming from the west – Koan 88

No. 88. The Knight patriarch coming from the west Yamana Morofuyu was a brave warrior of the Ashikagas, who was transferred from being a naval captain to the cavalry. For some time after that he trained in Zen at Enkakuji. One year he came to the Rohatsu training week in December, but would not sit in the special meditation hall reserved for the warriors. Instead he was riding his horse all day in the mountains. Master Daikyo, the 43rd teacher at Enkakuji, warned him against this, saying, ‘On horseback your heart will easily be distracted. During the Rohatsu, sit in the hall.’ He said: ‘Monks are men of Zen sitting, and should certainly do their meditation in the special Buddha place. But I am a knight and should practise my meditation on horseback.’ The teacher said, ‘Your Honour was formerly a sea captain, and now become a knight. The patriarch’s…

Meditation of the energy-sea – Koan 92

No. 92. Meditation of the energy-sea A retired landowner named Sadashige of Awafune (the present-day Ofuna) trained at Kenchoji under Nanzan, the 20th master. Once he was away for a time and when he returned the teacher said, ‘You have been ill, Sir, and for some time you have not come to the Zen sitting here. Have you now been able to purify and calm your kikai (energy-sea)?’ Sadashige said, ‘Following your holy instruction I have meditated on the kikai and been able to attain purity and calm.’ The teacher said, ‘Bring out what you have understood of the meditation and say something on it.’ This my kikai tanden, breast, belly, [down to the] soles of the feet, [is] altogether my original face. TEST What nostrils would there be on that face? This my kikai tanden [is] altogether this my true home. TEST What news would there be from the…

Freeing the ghost – Koan 100

No. 100. Freeing the ghost In the first year of Einin (1293) Hirotada was taking as a koan the four phrases of the Diamond sutra: If as a form he would see me, Or by sound or word would seek me, This one on the wrong path Cannot see the Buddha. He could not penetrate into it. He was sitting in meditation in the cave called Snowgate, which is one of the three near the Tosotsuryo, the tomb of the founder of Kenchoji. While he was unaware of anything in his samadhi, the ground opened and the timbers and stones of the building collapsed into the fissure, burying him. That night the apparition of Hirotada was seen before the hall of the founder, repeating Cannot see the Buddha, cannot see the Buddha without ceasing- The monk Mori Sokei, who had the position of jishinban, confronted the ghost and shouted one…

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