Extracts from S’ankara on the Yoga Sutras

In these extracts the translator proposes to give some idea of the original material which this sub-commentary provides for the study of the Yoga Sutras. Purely technical discussions are not included. It is intended that the meaning should be lucid and clear to the general reader. General information about the book  The Parallel with Medical Treatment At the beginning of his sub-commentary, S’ankara compares the yogic methods to the four-fold classification of medical treatment. This is familiar in even early Buddhist texts, and it had been assumed that Buddhists adopted it from medical texts. But, as Wezler has shown, the four-fold classification does not appear in medical texts before about 200 AD. Vyasa in the second extract below reproduces the Buddhist simile, and S’ankara echoes it in the first two but the simile in the third one is perhaps original to this text. We can note that S’ankara uses the …

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Sankara on the Yoga Sutras – About the text

                                                                   This is a ground breaking translation of a major work which surfaced only in 1952. It claims to be by S’ankara Bhagavatpada (700AD), India’s greatest philosopher and spiritual teacher. If accepted as authentic, which seems increasingly likely, it will transform S’ankara studies and parts of Indian philosophical tradition. There is a chapter on this text in Wilhelm Halbfass: Tradition and Reflection, which discusses the text and some main concepts, though not the yoga practices. It is a sub-commentary on the Vyasa commentary (about 500 AD) to the Yoga Sutras of Patanjali (about 200 AD). This text will entail a re-thinking of S’ankara and his presentation of the Advaita Non-dual doctrine and practice. In his Brahma Sutra commentary, …

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Acknowledgements for Shankara on the Yoga Sutras

Acknowledgements I am grateful to Dr. Hajime Nakamura, Professor Emeritus of the University of Tokyo and founder of the Eastern Institute, Tokyo, for help with the translation of the First Part. For errors that remain I am entirely responsible. The late Shankaracarya of Sringeri, H.H. Abhinava Vidyatirtha, showed much interest in this Vivaraṇa and encouraged the present translator to tackle this difficult text, which (he said) might be of great importance in the study of Śaṅkara. The trustees of the Trevor Leggett Adhyatma Yoga Trust wish to express their grateful thanks to Dr Kengo Harimoto of Mahidol University,Thailand, who kindly agreed to write a Foreword to this E-book edition of The Complete Commentary by Śaṅkara on the Yoga Sutras, translated by Trevor Pryce Leggett. Dr Harimoto’s most valuable and interesting Foreword reviews and puts in context some of the comments that have been made on the author’s translation since it …

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Foreword to Shankara on the Yoga Sutras

Foreword by Dr Kengo Harimoto When Trevor Leggett published The Complete Commentary by Śaṅkara on the Yoga sūtra-s in 1990, it was the first full translation of the sub-commentary on the Yogasūtras, variously called the Yogasūtrabhāṣyavivaraṇa or the Pātañjalayogaśāstravivaraṇa, etc., into a modern language. The Sanskrit text (henceforth the Vivaraṇa) had attracted some attention from Western scholars from the time it was published in Madras in 1952 as part of the Madras Government Oriental Series, especially because the editors of the edition ascribed it to one of the most famous of Indian philosophers, Śaṅkara. Hajime Nakamura, by translating whose work from Japanese into English Leggett had become known among Indologists, was one of those who were interested in the Vivaraṇa. Nakamura wrote a few articles on the Vivaraṇa in the late 1970s, mainly concerned with its authorship. He also published a Japanese translation of its first chapter from 1979 to …

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Yoga Sutras for Yoga Practice

Using Shankara on the Yoga Sutras for Yoga Practice You have to know enough theory for a working basis; there is no need immediately to read the subtleties of the intellectual background. (1) Read the Introduction for the General Reader Introduction for the General Reader The text translated here is an historical find: an unknown commentary on the Yoga sūtra-s of Patañjali by Śaṅkara, the most eminent philosopher of ancient India. Present indications are that it is likely to be authentic, which would date it about AD 700. The many references to Yoga meditation in his accepted works have sometimes been regarded as concessions to accepted ideas of the time, and not really his own views. If he has chosen to write a commentary on Yoga meditation, it must have been a central part of his own standpoint, although he was opposed to some of the philosophical doctrines of the …

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Shankara on the Yoga Sutras Introduction for the general reader

Introduction for the general reader The text translated here is an historical find: an unknown commentary on the Yoga sūtra-s of Patañjali by Śaṅkara, the most eminent philosopher of ancient India. Present indications are that it is likely to be authentic, which would date it about AD 700. The many references to Yoga meditation in his accepted works have sometimes been regarded as concessions to accepted ideas of the time, and not really his own views. If he has chosen to write a commentary on Yoga meditation, it must have been a central part of his own standpoint, although he was opposed to some of the philosophical doctrines of the official Yoga school. One would expect a tendency to modify those unacceptable doctrines, if this text is really by Śaṅkara. This turns out to be the case. For those familiar with yoga meditation, who want to go straight into the …

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Shankara on the Yoga Sutras Technical introduction

Technical introduction The text This is a pioneer translation of a text on Yoga, a vivaraṇa sub-commentary on the Vyāsa bhāṣya to Patañjali’s Yoga sūtra, claiming to be by Śaṅkara Bhagavat-pāda (definable as the author of the Brahma sūtra bhāṣya). It came to notice as No. 94 in the Madras Government Oriental Series published in 1952, having been put together, with impressive scholarship and patience, from a single defective manuscript. It has been unknown except for publication of a small portion in another context (Madras University Sanskrit Series, No. 6) in 1931, which context however seems to establish that it was already in existence in the fourteenth century. The editing, which involved rearranging, was done by two pandits: P. S. Rama Sastri and S. R; Krishnamurti Sastri, who judged that this was indeed a work by the great Śaṅkara. In 1968, Paul Hacker published an influential article accepting the identification …

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Yoga Sutra 1.01 the exposition of yoga

Sūtra I.1 Now the exposition of yoga (Vyāsa) The word Now means here a beginning, and the topic now begun is understood to be an exposition of yoga. (Śaṅkara:) In whom are neither karma nor its fruition but from whom they come about, Whom the taints of humanity can never withstand nor touch, Whom the eye of Time that reckons all cannot encompass, That Lord of the world, slayer of the demon Kaiṭabha – to him I bow. Who is omniscient, all-glorious and all-powerful, Who is without taint, and who requites actions with their fruits, The Lord who is the cause of the rise, end, and maintenance of every thing, To him, that teacher even of teachers, be this bow. A sub-commentary is here begun on the yoga classic of Patañjali, from its first word Now. No one will follow through the practices and restrictions of yoga unless the goal …

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Yoga Sutra 1.02 Yoga is inhibition of the mental processes

Sūtra I.2 Yoga is inhibition of the mental processes (Opponent) If the sūtra has been presented to give this definition, it should have been ‘Yoga has inhibition of the mental processes’; to put them in apposition is not right, for a definition should not be simply the thing defined. Or at any rate it should have been said, ‘The definition is, inhibition of the mental processes.’ (Answer) A definition is projected (adhyas) on to the thing defined. When we say ‘This person is Devadatta’ there is a projection (adhyāsa) of the definition on to the thing defined. So there is no fault. The omission of the word All shows that the cognitive (samādhi) too is yoga. (Opponent) (The commentator’s previous gloss) But the ultra-cognitive is when there is inhibition of all mental processes is also a definition of it, so the sūtra should have been ‘Yoga is inhibition of all …

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Yoga Sutra 1.03 the Seer is established in his own nature

Sūtra I.3 Then the Seer is established in his own nature Then the power-of-consciousness rests in its own nature, as in the state of release. But when the mind is extraverted, though it is so, it is not so. It has been said that yoga is inhibition of the mental processes, by which inhibition the true being of Puruṣa as the cognizer (boddhṛ) is realized. In which case some might suppose that with inhibition of the thoughts of objects, there would be inhibition of the subject, the cognizer, the Puruṣa, also. Then they would assume that it would not be sensible to try to attain Knowledge-of-the-difference, the means to release, and that the exposition of yoga, which aims at that Knowledge, would be futile. To show that inhibition of the mental process is not inhibition of Puruṣa, and to point directly to the result of Knowledge, the commentator says: What …

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Yoga Sutra 1.04 there is only one sight, and the sight is knowledge alone.

Sūtra I.4 Otherwise, it conforms itself to the mental process In the extraverted state, whatever the process in the mind, Puruṣa has a process not distinguished from it. As a sūtra says: There is only one sight, and the sight is knowledge alone. (Opponent) If though it is so means that power-of-consciousness does rest in its own nature even when mind is extraverted, and not so denies that it so rests, there is the contradiction that the same thing both is so and is not so, and our side asks in bewilderment, How can this be? (Answer) The answer from our side is, Otherwise, it conforms itself to the mental process. (Opponent) Well, why does it conform to it? (Answer) Because objects have been displayed to it. Though in the two cases there is no distinction as to the resting in its own nature, still there is a distinction according …

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Yoga Sutra 1.05 the mental processes are of five kinds

Sūtra I.5 The mental processes are of five kinds; they are tainted or pure The tainted are caused by the five taints (kleśa); they become the seed-bed for the growth of the accumulated karma seed-stock. The others are pure and are the field of Knowledge. They oppose involvement in the guṇa-s. They remain pure even if they occur in a stream of tainted ones. In gaps between tainted ones, there are pure ones; in gaps between pure ones, tainted ones. It is only by mental processes that saṃskāra-s corresponding to them are produced, and by saṃskāra-s are produced new mental processes. Thus the wheel of mental process and saṃskāra revolves. Such is the mind. But when it gives up its involvement, it abides in the likeness of self (ātman) or else dissolves. The mental processes are to be inhibited, though they are many. In the extraverted state, Puruṣa conforms to …

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Yoga Sutra 1.07 right knowledge is either direct perception, inference, or authority

Sūtra I.7 Right knowledge is either direct perception, inference, or authority The right knowledge called direct perception is the process when the mind is coloured by an external thing through a sense-channel, and takes as its field the determination mainly of the particular nature of the thing, which has however also the nature of a universal. What then are the five kinds of mental process, tainted or pure? They are right knowledge, illusion, logical construction, sleep, memory. All the mental processes are included in these. Right knowledge is either direct perception, inference, or authority. The process called right knowledge (pramāṇa, also proof) is divided into just these three, the first division of right knowledge being direct perception. Now the definition of direct perception is given. It is put first because the other two presuppose it. By a sense channel: the sense referred to is one of the five senses of …

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Yoga Sutra 1.08 Illusion is false knowledge based on an untrue form

Sūtra I.8 Illusion is false knowledge based on an untrue form Illusion (viparyaya) is false knowledge (mithyā-jñāna) based on an untrue form. Having explained right knowledge, now is described the mental process called illusion: it is false knowledge based on an untrue form. (Opponent) Our subject is inhibition, and furthermore the release which comes from it, and furthermore the bondage to be escaped from, and furthermore the Ignorance (avidyā) which is the root of bondage. Ignorance is illusion, so this is the main thing to be inhibited. For it is the cause of bondage, and when the cause is inhibited, it follows that its effect is inhibited also. So illusion is the principal thing and should have been explained before right knowledge. (Answer) Certainly illusion is the first thing as regards needing inhibition. But human efforts at inhibition are based on knowledge of what is correct and what is faulty, …

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Yoga Sutra 1.09 logical construction is something that follows on verbal knowledge

Sūtra I.9 Logical construction is something that follows on verbal knowledge but has no real object This (vikalpa) does not amount to right knowledge. Now he describes logical construction. Verbal knowledge means knowledge from words, and something that follows on verbal knowledge means something whose nature is to follow from the verbal knowledge, good or bad, which comes from the fixed relation between words and their meanings; but has no real object means that nothing is actually expressed, inasmuch as there is no actual (yathābhūta) thing as the meaning of those words from which that knowledge follows. Logical construction is thinking without reference to any actual thing. (Opponent) If it follows on verbal knowledge, it should be taken as authority. (Answer) It does not amount to right knowledge. It does not fall under authority because it has no real object. Authority does arise from verbal knowledge, but it relates to …

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Yoga Sutra 1.10 the mental process which rests on the notion of non-existence is sleep

Sūtra I.10 The mental process which rests on the notion of non-existence is sleep This is a special notion arising from the recollection on waking in the form of ‘I slept well; my mind is calm and has cleared up my understanding’, or else ‘I slept badly, my mind is dull and wanders aimlessly’ or again ‘I slept sunk in stupor; my limbs seem heavy and my mind is limp and faint, as if some force had seized control of it.’ There would be no recollection on waking unless caused by an experience; without an experience there would be no memories based on it and corresponding to it. Therefore sleep is a particular notion, and like all the others it is to be inhibited in samādhi. Now the sūtra describes sleep: The mental process which rests on the notion of nonexistence is sleep (nidrā). Right knowledge, illusion, and logical construction, …

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Yoga Sutra 1.11 memory is not letting slip away an object experienced

Sūtra I.11 Memory is not letting slip away an object experienced Now he explains memory. Memory is not letting slip away an object experienced. Memory is described at the end because it is the effect of all the other mental processes, beginning with right knowledge. The compound object-experienced means both what has been experienced and a particular object. That alone is the object which has been experienced, but what has been experienced is not necessarily an object. Otherwise a memory of another memory would be no memory, because a memory has no qualities like sound (as objects have). And since memory is intelligible to itself, it is necessary to have also memory of other memories. Not letting slip away means that there is no stealing away or disappearance (of any of it). Though the object itself is not present, memory is, by reason of similarity to it, an appearance as …

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Yoga Sutra 1.12 inhibition is by practice and detachment

Sūtra I.12 Their inhibition is by practice and detachment Flowing both ways, the so-called stream of the mind flows to good or flows to evil. When it is borne on to release, down into the field of discrimination, that is the flow towards good: when it is borne on to saṃsāra, down into the field of failure to discriminate, that is the evil flow. By detachment the current towards objects is dammed, and by practice of discriminating vision the auspicious current of discrimination is made to flow. Thus inhibition of the mental process depends on both. He explains the means for their inhibition: Their inhibition is by practice and detachment. The characteristics of practice and detachment will be described in the coming sūtra-s. By these two the mental processes already described are inhibited, because they are opposed to them. Inhibition (nirodha) means cessation (upaśama). To show discrimination as the object …

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Yoga Sutra 1.13 practice is the effort at steadiness

Sūtra I.13 Practice is the effort at steadiness in it Steadiness is the tranquil flow of the mind without mental processes. Practice is the effort thereto, the vigour, the enthusiasm, in undertaking the discipline to that end. To explain the practice for it, he says, Practice is the effort at steadiness in it. in it means in their inhibition. The word steadiness is in the locative case, to show causality. The steadiness which is the cause of the inhibition of the mind is the result of effort, and the effort which is its cause is practice, the tranquil flow as it were of a stream free from mud is a transformation into a pure form of a mind without mental processes, which have been inhibited. Effort: vigour, enthusiasm, are synonyms. Practice is undertaking the discipline, the yoga discipline of restraints and observances and the others listed in sūtra II.29, to …

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Yoga Sutra 1.14 practised for a long time, uninterruptedly and with reverence, it becomes firmly grounded

Sūtra I.14 But practised for a long time, uninterruptedly and with reverence, it becomes firmly grounded Practised for a long time, practised uninterruptedly, practised with reverence – carried through with austerity, with brahmacarya, with knowledge and with faith, in reverence, it becomes firmly grounded. The meaning is that the purpose is not suddenly overwhelmed by an extravertive saṃskāra. But how does this become firm? He says, Practised for a long time, uninterruptedly. Unless it is for a long time, and unless it is uninterrupted, the practice does not become firmly grounded, and therefore both are mentioned. The practice is also specified as to be done with reverence. He explains that firmly grounded means that it is not overwhelmed by an extravertive saṃskāra suddenly in a rush.

Yoga Sutra 1.15 detachment is consciousness of self-mastery

Sūtra I.15 Detachment is consciousness of self-mastery, of one who has no thirst for any object either seen or heard about Detachment is the consciousness of self-mastery of one who has no thirst for any object either seen or heard about. It is that consciousness in one who is unmoved by visible objects like women, food and drink, or power, who is without thirst for objects heard about such as attainment of heaven or the state of the gods or of those absorbed into prakṛti, is inwardly aware of the defects in them by the power of his meditation, and who is wholly impassive – that consciousness of self-mastery which has nothing to avoid and nothing to accept, is detachment. To describe detachment (vairāgya) he says, Detachment is the consciousness of self-mastery of one who has no thirst for any object either seen or heard about. The word object has …

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Yoga Sutra 1.16 from knowledge of Purusa there is no thirst for the gunas

Sūtra I.16 It is the higher detachment when from knowledge of Puruṣa there is no thirst for (even) the guṇa-s One who is aware of the defects in objects visible or heard about is detached from objects, but one who from practising the vision of Puruṣa has his mind pure like it and clear-seeing, is detached from even the guṇa-s, with their qualities manifest or unmanifest. Thus detachment is of two kinds. The second, higher one is nothing but pure Knowledge. When it rises, the yogin in whom this Knowledge has dawned thinks, ‘Attained is what was to be attained, destroyed are the taints which were to be destroyed; broken is the continuous chain of the cycle of being, bound by which men born will die, and having died will be born.’ Detachment is the highest peak of Knowledge: it borders on Transcendental Aloneness. Detachment is of two kinds, higher …

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Yoga Sutra 1.17 something physical as the mind’s object of meditation

Sūtra I.17 It is cognitive because accompanied with verbal associations (vitarka), with subtle associations (vicāra), with joy (ānanda), and the form of I-am-ness (asmitā) The first (with vitarka) is an experience of something physical as the mind’s object of meditation. It is with subtle associations (vicāra) when the object of meditation is subtle. Joy means delight. I-am-ness is the feeling of being an individual self. It was explained under the second sūtra that inhibition is not the definition of cognitive samādhi. When the mental process has been inhibited by the two means described, namely practice and detachment, how is the resulting samādhi to be described? It is cognitive, because accompanied with verbal associations, with subtle associations, with joy, and the form of I-am-ness. The word accompanied goes with each of them, so it means that it is accompanied with experience of the physical, with experience of the subtle, with experience …

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Yoga Sutra 1.18 samadhi follows on practice of the idea of stopping, and consists of samskaras alone

Sūtra I.18 The other (samādhi) follows on practice of the idea of stopping, and consists of saṃskāra-s alone The words follows on practice of the idea of stopping show the relation to the discipline, but consists of saṃskāra-s alone explains its nature. They both go with The other, which therefore follows on the practice, and consists of saṃskāra-s alone. It is the seed-less ultra-cognitive samādhi, which is other than the cognitive samādhi which has just been defined in the previous sūtra. When all the mental processes have stopped and only saṃskāra-s remain, the samādhi of the mind thus inhibited is ultra-cognitive. The means to it is the higher detachment. No meditation on an object can be a means to it, so the meditation is made on the idea of stopping, which is absence of anything. It is void of any object. The practice of this finally leads to a state …

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Yoga Sutra 1.19 samadhi is of two kinds

Sūtra I.19 It results from birth in the case of gods discarnate, and in the case of those who absorb themselves into prakṛti In the case of the gods free from a physical body, they experience a state of seeming release by the mental experience of their own saṃskāra-s alone. And they pass beyond this state when the saṃskāra-s causing it have finished maturing. So also those who merge themselves into prakṛti; a commitment still remains in their mind in spite of the absorption, and though they experience a state of seeming release, it is only so long as their mind is not set whirling again by the force of that commitment. This without-seed samādhi is of two kinds: the result of a means, or the result of birth. The first is a result of, is attained by, a means, and it is for yogin-s. Though the gods discarnate are …

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Yoga Sutra 1.20 faith, energy, memory, samadhi, and knowledge

Sūtra I.20 For the others, it comes after faith, energy, memory, (cognitive) samādhi, and knowledge The one resulting from a means is for yogin-s. Faith is a settled clarity of the mind: like a good mother, it protects a yogin. When he has that faith, and is seeking knowledge, there arises in him energy. When energy has arisen in him, his memory stands firm. When memory stands firm, his mind is undisturbed and becomes concentrated in samādhi. To the mind in samādhi comes knowledge by which he knows things as they really are. From practice of these means, and from detachment from the whole field of mental process, arises ultra-cognitive samādhi. The ultra-cognitive samādhi resulting from a means is that of the yogin-s, and it follows from faith, energy, memory, samādhi, and knowledge (prajñā). What is called faith is a settled clarity of the mind in regard to attaining release, …

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Yoga Sutra 1.21 the yogis are of nine kinds

Sūtra I.21 For those who practise with ardent energy, it is near They soon attain samādhi and the fruit of samādhi. The yogin-s, who practise the four methods beginning with faith, are of nine kinds. As he explains, they are divided according to the methods which they follow, either mild or moderate or intense. Each of these classes is sub-divided into three. Progress in the application of the method may be slow, or it may be moderate, or it may be energetic, and so it is with each of the three methods without exception. For those who practise the intense methods with ardent energy, samādhi and the fruit of samādhi are near at hand.

Yoga Sutra 1.22 samadhi and the fruit of samadhi

Sūtra I.22 Even among the ardent, there is a distinction of mild or moderate or intense They may be mild or moderate or intense in their ardent energy, and so there is a further distinction. For the mildly ardent it is near: for the moderately ardent it is nearer: for the intensely ardent yogin who is practising intense methods, samādhi and the fruit of samādhi is nearest of all. Even among these ardent yogin-s there are distinctions corresponding to whether their progress is slow or moderate or ardent, and this is a distinction of the saṃskāra-s created by their previous practice of the discipline. For the highest of them, the attainment of samādhi is nearest at hand. The purpose of the sūtra is to fortify the enthusiasm of yogin-s in their practice. It is as in the world, where the prize goes to the one who runs fastest in the …

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Yoga Sutra 1.23 special devotion to the Lord

Sūtra I.23 Or by special devotion to the Lord As a result of the special devotion which is bhakti (love of God), the Lord bends down to him and rewards him according to what he has meditated on. If the yogin has meditated on it, the attainment of samādhi and its fruit is near at hand. He explains that there is another way, Or by special devotion to the Lord. The meaning of the word Lord will be given later; here he describes devotion. It is the devotion which is bhakti, and the Lord bends down to him and rewards him. The Lord comes face to face with him and gives his grace to the yogin who is fully devoted to him, according to what the yogin has meditated upon; the grace is effortless, by the mere omnipotence of the supreme Lord. By that grace of the Lord, samādhi and …

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Yoga Sutra 1.24 the Lord is a special kind of Purusa

Sūtra I.24 Untouched by taints or karma-s or their fruition or their latent stocks is the Lord, who is a special kind of Puruṣa The taints are Ignorance, I-am-ness, desire, hate, and clinging to life. Karma-s are good and bad. Their fruition is the results they bring. The corresponding latent impulses (vāsanā) are the latent stocks. All these exist in the mind but are attributed to Puruṣa, for he is the experiencer of their results. It is as when victory or defeat, which are events on the battle-field, are attributed to the ruler. Untouched by such experience is the Lord, who is a special kind of Puruṣa. Who is this Lord who is neither pradhāna nor Puruṣa? In the Sāṅkhya classics no proof of God is given, and one asks for some proof of the Lord, that he really exists, and again what is the special nature of this Lord …

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Yoga Sutra 1.25 the seed of omniscience becomes transcendent

Sūtra I.25 In whom the seed of omniscience becomes transcendent All certain knowledge, of past or future or present or a combination of them, or from extra-sensory perception, whether that knowledge be small or great, is the seed of omniscience. He in whom it becomes transcendent is omniscient. The seed of omniscience attains the ultimate, because it is something which has degrees, like any measurable. He in whom knowledge attains the ultimate, is omniscient. And he is a special Puruṣa. A proof is added in demonstration of the Lord who has been described: In whom the seed of omniscience becomes transcendent. In whom in that Lord as described, it is proper that it should become transcendent. What should become transcendent? All certain knowledge whether from perception or from inference, with its field the past, with its field the future, or with its field the present, or with its field a …

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Yoga Sutra 1.26 time as a measure does not apply to the Lord

Sūtra I.26 This teacher of even the first teachers, because not particularized by time The first teachers are particularized by time. But with the Lord, time as a measure does not apply to him who is the teacher of even the first teachers. It is to be understood that as he is proved to be in the state of perfection at the beginning of this creation, so too at the beginning of past creations. This highest Lord who has been described is the teacher of even the first teachers, those who teach all the related means and ends for material results and for the highest bliss (niḥśreyasa). The meaning is that he creates the knowledge and instruction which they give. For all the kinds of knowledge arise from him, as sparks of fire from a blaze or drops of water from the sea. We have mentioned that he is the …

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Yoga Sutra 1.27 pranava

Sūtra I.27 Of him, the expression is praṇava (OM) What is expressed by praṇava is the Lord. It has been said Or from devotion to the Lord (sūtra I.23). How should one perform devotion to him, and what is the means of that devotion? To explain the form in which the devotee contemplates on him, the sūtra says Of him, the expression is praṇava (OM). Of the Lord who has been described, the expression the expressing word, is praṇava. In the same way the word cow expresses something which has a dewlap and horns and so on. Now the word praṇava is variously explained etymologically: pra stands for prakarśena, perfectly; nu (= nava) stands for nūyate, he is praised; praṇava the word OM, praises (praṇauti) the Lord; the Lord is devoutly worshipped (praṇidhīyate) through it by his devotees; they bow down (praṇam) to him through it; through it they worship …

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Yoga Sutra 1.28 japa and bhavana on the Lord

Sūtra I.28 Repetition of it and meditation on its meaning Repetition (japa) of it and meditation (bhāvanā) on the Lord who is signified by OM. When the yogin thus repeats OM and meditates on its meaning, his mind becomes one-pointed. So it has been said: After OM repetition, let him set himself in yoga, After yoga, let him set himself to repetition. When OM repetition and yoga come to perfection The supreme self (paramātman) shines forth. When the yogin has thus understood the relation of the expression OM and its meaning, how does he attract the grace of the supreme Lord? The sūtra says, Repetition of it and meditation on its meaning. Practice of repetition of OM, which is the expression of the Lord, taken as consisting of three-and-a-half measures (mātra) or of three measures, is called japa; the repetition is either mental or in a low voice (upāṃśu). meditation …

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Yoga Sutra 1.29 realization of the separate consciousness

Sūtra I.29 From that, realization of the separate consciousness, and absence of obstacles As a result of devotion to the Lord, there are none of the obstacles like illness, and he has a perception of his own true nature. As the Lord is a Puruṣa, pure, radiant, alone, and beyond evil, so the Puruṣa in him, witness of the buddhi, knows himself to be. The commentary introduces this sūtra with the words And what happens to him? The word And refers to the fact that one result, namely attainment of one-pointedness of mind, has already been mentioned in the previous sūtra. And is there some other result for him, or is it perhaps one-pointedness alone? The sūtra now says From that, realization of the separate consciousness and absence of obstacles. From that devotion to the Lord, there is realization of the separate consciousness: it is conscious of its own buddhi …

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Yoga Sutra 1.30 distractions of the mind are the obstacles

Sūtra I.30 Illness, apathy, doubt, carelessness, laziness, failure to withdraw, misconceptions, failure to attain a state, instability (in the state) – these distractions of the mind are the obstacles There are nine obstacles which distract the mind. They appear only in conjunction with the mental processes described previously, and without the obstacles, the latter do not arise. Illness is loss of balance in the humours (dhātu), secretions (rasa) or organs. Apathy is mental ineffectiveness. Doubt is an idea embracing both alternatives, in the form ‘This might be so, or it might not be so’. Carelessness is lack of devotion to the means to samādhi. Laziness is inertia from heaviness physical and mental. Failure to withdraw is a hankering caused by past addiction to objects. Misconceptions are illusory knowledge (viparyaya jñāna). Failure to attain a state is not attaining any stage of samādhi. Instability is when a state has been attained …

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Yoga Sutra 1.31 pain is that by which living beings are struck down,

Sūtra I.31 Pain, frustration, restlessness of the body, spasmodic breathing in or out are the accompaniments of these distractions The pain is that proceeding from the self, or proceeding from living creatures, or proceeding from the gods. Pain is that by which living beings are struck down, and which they struggle to end. Frustration is the mental agitation when a desire is obstructed. Restlessness of the body is what makes it unsteady and trembling. Spasmodic breathing is inhaling the air from outside, or exhaling the abdominal air. These are the accompaniments of the distractions; they occur in one whose mind is distracted, and do not occur in one whose mind is concentrated in samādhi. Pain is that by which living beings are struck down, and to end which they struggle, they strive. It is of three kinds, the first being that proceeding from the self (ādhyātmika). What is related (adhy) …

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Yoga Sutra 1.32 practise meditation on one principle

Sūtra I.32 To prevent them, practice on one principle To prevent the distractions, let the mind practise meditation on one principle. It has been said that they are inhibited by detachment and practice; the first has been described, and now he deals with practice. To prevent them, these distractions practice on one principle, on a single truth. (Opponent) That one principle cannot be the object of meditation practice, because it is a real thing, and the fullness of real things like self (ātman) cannot even be spoken. They are established in their own greatness and not simply mental. He is going on to deny that such real things have any dependence on the mind, for instance in sūtra IV.16, A thing is not dependent on a single mind. (Answer) With this doubt in mind the commentator says, let the mind practise meditation on one principle. Here he is showing how …

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Yoga Sutra 1.33 the mind is made clear by meditation

Sūtra I.33 The mind is made clear by meditation on friendliness towards the happy, compassion for the suffering, goodwill towards the virtuous, and disinterest in the sinful Let him practise friendliness towards all beings experiencing happiness, compassion to those in pain, goodwill to the habitually virtuous, and disinterest in habitual sinners. Such devoted meditations produce pure dharma, and thereby the mind becomes clear. When it is clear, it attains steadiness in one-pointedness. How is the mind to be trained? Practice on one principle has been taught; what is the one principle which is to be the object of the practice? He says, meditation on friendliness towards the happy, compassion for the suffering, goodwill towards the virtuous, and disinterest in the sinful. Friendliness is meditation on being a friend, one who rejoices in happiness when he sees it without anything like envy. So towards suffering, a kindly sympathy, and to the …

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Yoga Sutra 1.34 expulsion and retention of prana

Sūtra I.34 Or by expulsion and retention of prāṇa Expulsion is emission of the abdominal air through the two nostrils by a conscious effort; retention refers to the process of prāṇāyāma. By these two means one can attain steadiness of the mind. The word Or means an alternative, so this is a means to steadiness other than meditations on friendliness, etc. The sense is that one should attain steadiness by some one of the means beginning with meditation on friendliness; a number of means are given, with the idea that one of them will be easier to a particular person and time and place. Expulsion and retention separately or together. The first is emission of the abdominal air up to the limit through the nostrils, not by the mouth. Retention is the full process of prāṇāyāma, to the limit. Though prāṇa is to some extent restrained even by expulsion (alone), …

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Yoga Sutra 1.35 supernormal perception of a divine object brings the mind to steadiness

Sūtra I.35 Or achievement of supernormal perception of a divine object brings the mind to steadiness When one makes a concentration (dhāraṇā) on the tip of the nose, he will have a sensation (saṃvit) of divine fragrance; on the palate, of colour; on the middle of the tongue, of touch; and on the root of the tongue, of sound. These supernormal perceptions arising hold the mind in steadiness, remove doubts, and become a means to samādhi cognition (samādhi-prajñā). In the same way experiences like the moon, sun, a planet, a jewel, a light or a ray, are to be known as supernormal perceptions of actual objects. Although what is understood from the scriptures and inferences from them, and from instruction by a teacher, are real facts, since these are qualified to describe things as they really are, still until some one part of it has been known directly for oneself, …

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Yoga Sutra 1.36 radiant perception beyond sorrow

Sūtra I.36 Or a radiant perception beyond sorrow The words ‘brings the mind to steadiness’ are to be supplied from the previous sūtra. When one concentrates on the heart-lotus, there is direct awareness of the buddhi. The buddhi-sattva is like shining space, but while the concentration is still wavering in stability, the perception takes the luminous form of a sun, or a moon, planet, or gems. When the mind reaches samādhi on I-am-ness, it is like the still ocean, serene and infinite, I-am alone. On which it has been said: Having discovered the self which is subtle as an atom, he should be conscious of I-am alone. There are thus the two sorrowless perceptions, one of divine objects, and one of self alone, by which the mind of the yogin attains steadiness. The sūtra has to be completed from the context, so that it runs: ‘Or where a radiant perception, …

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Yoga Sutra 1.37 meditation on freedom from passion

Sūtra I.37 Or on a mind whose meditation is on freedom from passion Coloured by meditation on a mind free from passion, the mind of the yogin attains steadiness. He from whose thinking all passion has gone, is free from passion, namely dispassionate. It is well known what dispassion is: there must be freedom from desire even in the case of a naturally passionate man in the presence of objects of desire, for instance women or possessions. Let him practise with this idea in mind. But actual objects should not be part of the meditation, because of the evils in them. Thus coloured by meditation on a mind free from passion, the mind of the yogin attains steadiness. For a mind, once the bridle of passion has been set on it, runs like a horse driven by another.

Yoga Sutra 1.38 meditating on the knowledge of dream and sleep

Sūtra I.38 Or meditating on the knowledge of dream and sleep Either on the knowledge of dream or on the knowledge of sleep; the yogin’s mind in that form attains steadiness. Meditating, either on the knowledge of dream or on the knowledge of sleep, the mind becomes of that form alone. What the mind meditates on as its own being, that form indeed it becomes. In the dream state, there is knowledge without any physical objects like sound and so on, and the nature of that knowledge is pure illumination. Now he meditates on what that knowledge is, but not on the remembered objects themselves (which appear in the dream). For the mind can be caught by the bridle of an object even merely remembered. But the meditation on the knowledge of deep sleep, which is essentially non-perception of any particular objects, rests on the idea of non-existence, and is …

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Yoga Sutra 1.39 meditation on what appeals to him

Sūtra I.39 Or by meditation on what appeals to him Let him meditate on whatever appeals to him. Having found some one thing on which he can steady his mind, he will be able to steady it on other things also. Let him meditate on whatever appeals with the aim of steadying the mind, for steadying the mind is the purpose here. It must not be to secure pleasures and so on, for there is the prohibition ‘Even if one should obtain objects, let him never dwell on them in any way’. Having found something which is a proper object for meditation on which he can steady his mind, he will be able to steady it on other things also, the things specifically prescribed for the training.  

Yoga Sutra 1.40 mastery extends right to the ultimate atom

Sūtra I.40 His mastery extends right to the ultimate atom and to the ultimate magnitude When he concentrates on it, he can steady his mind on anything subtle, right down to the ultimate atom; when he concentrates on it, he has steadiness of mind on anything substantial, up to the ultimate magnitude. When one can take his practice to either at will, it is full mastery; when he has full mastery, he does not require further practice in training. The words right to are to be taken with both the extremes. When he concentrates on something subtle, in the course of his practice the mind experiences things progressively smaller and smaller till he comes to the ultimate atom. By practice he becomes able to remain steady in that experience. When he can take his practice to either limit at will, it is full mastery. He has complete mastery who is …

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Yoga Sutra 1.41 samapatti identification-in-samadhi samapatti

Sūtra I.41 Identification-in-samādhi (samāpatti) is when the mental process has dwindled and the mind rests on either the knower or the knowing process or a known object, and like a crystal apparently takes on their respective qualities (Opponent) He is going to speak about the objects of samādhi in the Third Part (sūtra III.35): by saṃyama on what-is-for-its-own-sake, (distinct) from what-is-for-the-sake-of another, there comes knowledge of Puruṣa. There he is going to explain the nature of identification-in-samādhi, namely the nature of saṃyama, by the resultant effect, so the present sūtra is superfluous. (Answer) Not so, because here he wishes to show the purpose of mastering the methods that have just been described. They have been properly mastered when the mind, identified in samādhi with the knower or with the process of knowledge or with a known object, assumes the appearance of it. Sūtra I.17 has already said that samādhi is …

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Yoga Sutra 1.42 samadhi-identification is called sa-vitarka when it is mixed up with mental constructs

Sūtra I.42 The samādhi-identification is called sa-vitarka when it is mixed up with mental constructs of word, thing, and idea We see for instance that the process of knowing takes place without discriminating between the word Cow and the thing Cow and the idea Cow, though they are on different levels, for there are some properties distinguished as belonging to words and others to things, and still others to ideas. When a yogin makes the identification on a thing like a cow, if it arises in his samādhi-knowledge and manifests there full of mental constructs of word, thing, and idea, that confused identification is called sa-vitarka. There are four of the samādhi-identifications. The sūtra explains the first of them: the identification is called sa-vitarka when it is mixed up with mental constructs (vikalpa) of word, thing, and idea. There are verbal constructs, and constructs relating to things, and constructs relating …

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Yoga Sutra 1.43 nir-vitarka samadhi

Sūtra I.43 When there is purification from memories, (that samādhi) apparently empty of its own nature of knowledge, with the object alone shining forth, is nir-vitarka Purified from memories, which are mental constructs of verbal associations, or knowledge from authority or inference, the samādhi-knowledge coloured by the object as it is, having given up seemingly its own nature of pure perception, is identified with the object, the nature of the thing alone. That identification is what is described as nir-vitarka (samādhi). When there is purification from memories of mental constructs of verbal association, authority, inference the mental construct of verbal association, the mental construct of ideas from authority, the mental construct of ideas from inference – this it is which is the memory, by which an alien quality from something else is illusorily projected (adhyāropyate). For a thing cannot in reality be projected into another thing. (Opponent) How can what …

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Yoga Sutra 1.44 sa-vicara identification refers to subtle elements,

Sūtra I.44 In the same way, when it is on subtle objects, it is called sa-vicāra (with subtle associations) and nir-vicāra (without subtle associations) Of these two, the sa-vicāra identification refers to subtle elements, whose qualities are manifest, with a particular location, time, cause and experience as their features. The object of the meditation is the subtle elements, and then it is called sa-vicāra and nir-vicāra. The subtle elements (tan-mātra) are those of sound, etc. In the Sanskrit compound deśakālanimittānubhavāvacchinneṣu, the word for ‘particularized’ applies to each element separately, so the meaning is: featured by a particular location, a particular time, a particular cause, and a particular experience. For purposes of ordinary life, everything is taken as having a particular location and so on, as related to the knower of that object, its subject. Such being the case, sa-vicāra is when the mental-constructs (vikalpa) of location and the others are …

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Yoga Sutra 1.45 subtlety of objects ends in pradhana

Sūtra I.45 The scale of (causal) subtlety of objects ends in pradhāna In the case of an atom of earth, the subtle element (tan-mātra) of odour is a subtler (causal) object (for the vicāra meditations); in the case of water it is the subtle element of taste; in the case of fire, light; in the case of air, touch; of space, it is the subtle element of sound. Subtler than these is the cosmic I (ahaṅkāra), and subtler than that is the Great Principle (liṅga); more subtle than that is pradhāna (a-liṅga – uncreated nature). There is nothing more subtle beyond pradhāna. (But) surely Puruṣa is at the limit of subtlety? Indeed it is, but it is not a subtle cause of the Great Principle in the same way that pradhāna is. Puruṣa is not the cause which produces it; it is only a cause which sets in motion. Hence …

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Yoga Sutra 1.46 samadhi from a seed

Sūtra I.46 These are samādhi from-a-seed These four samādhi-identifications have external things as their seed, so the samādhi is from-a-seed (sa-bīja). When it is a physical object, the samādhi is sa-vitarka or nir-vitarka; when a subtle object, it is sa-vicāra or nir-vicāra. So the four categories of samādhi have been described. They are from-a-seed because their objects are external things. The samādhi is from-a-secd, namely cognitive, as was explained under sūtra I.17: ‘cognitive because accompanied with verbal associations (vitarka), subtle associations (vicāra), joy (ānanda), and the form of I-am-ness (asmitā)’. When it is a physical object, the samādhi is sa-vitarka or nir-vitarka: when a subtle object, it is sa-vicāra or nir-vicāra. So the four categories of samādhi have been described.

Yoga Sutra 1.47 skill in nir-vicara, a clearness in the self

Sūtra I.47 From skill in nir-vicāra, a clearness in the self When the mind-sattva whose nature is light, is freed from rajas and tamas, and has a clear steady flow, without any veiling contamination of impurity, that is the skill in nir-vicāra. When this skill in nir-vicāra appears, there is an inner clearness in the self of the yogin, which is a progressively (anurodhi) clearer and brighter light of knowledge of the object as it really is. The veiling impurity is a sort of contamination, consisting of the taints, etc. clearness in the self is the knowledge which can distinguish such things as the self (ātman). It is of this that it is now said that it is knowledge of the thing as it really is (bhūlārtha); it is a progressively clearer stage by stage corresponding to the progressive destruction of the taints and brighter very distinct light of knowledge …

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Yoga Sutra 1.48 the knowledge is Truth-bearing

Sūtra I.48 In this, the knowledge is Truth-bearing The knowledge which appears in that clearness of the mind in samādhi has the special name of Truth-bearing, in the literal sense that it brings truth alone, and there is no trace of erroneous knowledge in it. So it is said: By scriptural authority, by inference, and by zest for meditation practice – In these three ways perfecting his knowledge, he attains the highest yoga. In this in the light of knowledge, the inner clearness of the mind in samādhi, the knowledge which appears born of discrimination (viveka) has the special name of Truth-bearing, in the literal sense that it brings truth alone and there is no trace of erroneous knowledge in this, which is born of discrimination. For it appears in the one in whom all taint of error has been destroyed, and being born, it dispels the obscurities associated with …

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Yoga Sutra 1.49 the scripture that deals only with universals

Sūtra I.49 This knowledge is of a particular thing, unlike knowledge from authority or from inference Authority means the scripture, and that deals only with universals – scripture cannot point to individual things. Why not? Because an individual does not have the conventional association with a word. Inference too has only universals for its object. The example of inference has been given, that where there is getting to another place, there is motion, and where there is no such getting to another place, there is no motion. And the conclusion is reached by inference by means of a universal. So the object of authority or inference is never a particular thing. Ordinary perception gives no knowledge at all of some subtle or remote or hidden thing, but we cannot assert that the latter is not demonstrable and has no existence. A particular relating to subtle elements or to Puruṣa is …

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Yoga Sutra 1.50 the samskara produced by truth-bearing knowledge

Sūtra I.50 The saṃskāra produced by it inhibits other saṃskāra-s The saṃskāra produced by truth-bearing knowledge removes the accumulated deposit of saṃskāra-s of extraversion. When the extravertive saṃskāra-s are overcome, no ideas arising from them appear. With inhibition of extravertive ideas, samādhi becomes habitual. Then there is knowledge from that samādhi; from that, more saṃskāra-s are laid down of knowledge, and so a fresh deposit of saṃskāra-s is built up. From that again knowledge, and from that more saṃskāra-s of it. When the yogin has attained samādhi-knowledge, a fresh saṃskāra made by the knowledge is produced. Knowledge must set up a saṃskāra. Each time the knowledge is renewed, its special saṃskāra is reinforced. But the renewal of the knowledge is from again taking up meditation on the object, different from itself. The saṃskāra produced by Truth-bearing knowledge removes the other accumulated deposit (āśaya) of saṃskāra-s of extroversion: it can do …

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Yoga Sutra 1.51 the samskara of inhibition suppresses the samskaras produced by samadhi

Sūtra I.51 When that too is inhibited, everything is inhibited, and thus this samādhi is without-seed Thus ends the First Part, on Samādhi, of the Yoga sūtra-s composed by the great ṛṣi Holy Patañjali This suppresses not only samādhi-knowledge, but also the saṃskāra-s of it. For the saṃskāra of inhibition suppresses the saṃskāra-s produced by samādhi. That there is a saṃskāra formed in the mind by inhibition is to be inferred from the experience that the inhibition remains steady for progressively longer periods. And then when that too is inhibited, everything is inhibited, and thus this samādhi is without-seed. The word thus carries the sense of a conclusion. When that too is inhibited, the new saṃskāra produced by samādhi-knowledge. The word too shows that the samādhi-knowledge, which caused the saṃskāra, has also been inhibited. As has been said earlier (sūtras I.12, 18) the means to inhibition is two-fold: supreme detachment, …

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Shankara on the Yoga Sutras Second Part: Means

Second Part: MEANS (Vyāsa) The yoga for a concentrated mind has been described; now he turns to how one of extravertive mind may become steady in yoga. (Śaṅkara:) Now the Second Part, on the means, is begun. Right vision (samyagdarśana) is the means to Transcendental Aloneness (kaivalya). The yogic means are only means to right vision through yoga, and as this Part is mainly concerned with them, it is called the Part of the Means. Then the Third Part, concerned mainly with the glories which attend on one who has been devoted to the practice of the yogic means, is called the Part of Glory. The Fourth Part, which deals mainly with Transcendental Aloneness, attained by the one who is detached from all yogic powers and glories in total renunciation, is called the Part of Transcendental Aloneness. The First Part, which at the beginning explained samādhi principally, was called the …

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Yoga Sutra 2.01 tapas, self-study, devotion to the Lord, are the yoga of action

Sūtra II.1 Tapas, self-study, devotion to the Lord, are the yoga of action The means are listed: Tapas, self-study (svādhyāya), devotion to the Lord, are the yoga of action. (Opponent) But tapas, self-study, and devotion to the Lord are going to be given among the observances (II.32); why are they mentioned here? (Answer) The purpose is as has been said: to show how one of extravertive mind may become steady in yoga. (Opponent) Not so, because that purpose is declared along with the list of observances. And do not say that it is also taught here that they thin out the taints, because that too is taught in that place. ‘From following up the yoga methods, destruction of impurity’ (II.28), and impurity means such things as the taints. As to (the other effect mentioned here namely) that they take him towards samādhi meditation, that too will be given as the …

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Yoga Sutra 2.02 actualize samadhi and thin out the taints

Sūtra II.2 To actualize samādhi and thin out the taints Practised hard, it actualizes samādhi, and thins out the taints. When the taints have been thinned out, it will by the fire of meditation practice make them like scorched seeds, inherently infertile. Then the subtle realization, the knowledge of the utter difference between sattva and Puruṣa, no more caught up in taints because they have been thinned out, its involvement at an end, tends towards dissolution. What is the purpose of this yoga of action? To explain its final purpose he says: To actualize samādhi and thin out the taints. How it comes to have the two-fold purpose, the commentator explains: practised hard, it actualizes samādhi; when it is combined with the other yogic methods it actualizes samādhi and thins out the taints. As he will say: ‘With the destruction of impurity from following up the yoga methods, light of …

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Yoga Sutra 2.03 Ignorance, I-am-ness, desire, hate, instinctive self-preservation, are the taints

Sūtra II.3 Ignorance, I-am-ness, desire, hate, instinctive self-preservation, are the taints The word ‘taints’ means five illusions. What are the taints by nature and how many are they in number? The sūtra has been given to explain their number and nature. Ignorance, I-am-ness, desire, hate, instinctive self-preservation, are the taints. Their individual characteristics are to be given in the sūtra-s following, and the present sūtra makes no attempt to do more than list them. (Opponent) Right knowledge, illusion, logical construction, and the other mental processes have been distinguished from one another, but there is no differentiation of the taints from illusion. Why not? (Answer) Because they are themselves different forms of illusion. They exist only when illusion is there, and so the commentator says, The word means five illusions. (Opponent) In the sūtra-s which distinguished the classes of mental process, it was said, ‘Right knowledge is either direct perception, inference, …

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Yoga Sutra 2.04 ignorance is the place of germination of I-am-ness

Sūtra II.4 Ignorance is the field of germination of the subsequent ones, whether dormant or thinned out or checked or active Here Ignorance is the field, the place of germination, of I-am-ness and the other subsequent ones, which can be in one of four states: dormant, thinned, checked or active. What is their dormant state? When implanted in the mind as a mere potentiality, reduced to the condition of a seed. It awakens when it confronts its object. Ignorance is the field of germination of the subsequent ones, which can be either dormant or thinned or checked or active. The sūtra itself shows how it is that I-am-ness and the others are called illusion. Ignorance is the field for their germination, where they produce themselves; like a piece of land supporting grass, creepers, bushes and plants not separate from itself, it is the field for I-am-ness and the others, not …

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Yoga Sutra 2.05 ugnorance is the conviction of permanence

Sūtra II.5 Ignorance is the conviction of permanence, purity, happiness and self in what are really impermanent, impure, painful and not self (Opponent) But why does the nature of Ignorance have to be described? (Answer) The commentator himself is going to discuss it in the passage beginning ‘Ignorance is the root of the train of taints’, and that is why its nature has to be taught here; unless the root of the train of taints is known, it cannot be uprooted. Ignorance is the conviction of permanence in effects which are impermanent, as for instance the idea ‘Eternal is the earth, eternal the heaven with its moon and stars, immortal are the shining ones.’ Then in the body of very repulsive impurity: From its abode, from its origin, from its support, from its secretions, and from its end, And because it has to be purified, the wise know the body …

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Yoga Sutra 2.06 purusa is the power of seer buddhi is the power of seeing

Sūtra II.6 The single selfhood, as it were, of the powers of seer and seeing is I-am-ness Puruṣa is the power of seer; mind (buddhi) is the power of seeing. The taking on of a single nature as it were, by these two, is called the taint of I-am-ness. Now the illusion called I-am-ness. Puruṣa is seer, his seeing being awareness, and he is a power; seeing, in the sense that by it something is seen, is also a power, whose nature is the determination of things by the mind (antaḥkaraṇa). Of these two powers of seer and seeing, whose natures are awareness and mental determination, the single selfhood as it were: single selfhood is the state where it is both one and this self; the word iva, as it were, shows that there is in fact absolute distinction between them. The taking on of a single nature as it …

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Yoga Sutra 2.07 desire follows pleasure

Sūtra II.7 Desire follows on (anujanma) pleasure When one familiar with a pleasure now has a memory of it, his eagerness for the pleasure or for the means to it, that thirst or greed, is (called) desire. Desire follows on (anujanma) is the consequence of (anuśayī) pleasure. To follow on means to arise afterwards. There are other readings of this sūtra and the next as ‘the consequence (anuśayī) of pleasure’ and ‘the consequence of pain’. They read the sūtras as Desire is the consequence of pleasure and hate is the consequence of pain, meaning that the character of the one is to be a consequence of pleasure, and similarly with pain. In both readings the sense is simply following on, and that is its habitual character. So he will say, ‘From righteousness, pleasure; from pleasure, desire’ (comm. to IV.11). As to the nature of this following on, he explains: When …

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Yoga Sutra 2.08 hate follows pain

Sūtra II.8 Hate follows on (anujanma) pain When one familiar with a pain now has a memory of it, that aversion towards the pain or what causes it, the desire to strike, the anger, is (called) hate. Hate follows on pain, is the consequence of pain. Pain has been described already, as that by which living beings are struck down and which they struggle to end (comm. on I.31). When one familiar with a pain as in the previous explanation in regard to pleasure has now a memory of the pain, that aversion towards the pain or what causes it such as a robber, the desire to strike the will to hit back, the anger, is hate. It is all as explained under desire in the previous sūtra.

Yoga Sutra 2.09 self-preservation is instinctive even in a Knower

Sūtra II.9 With spontaneous momentum, instinctive even in a Knower, is self-preservation The lust for life in every living being is in the form ‘Let me not experience death’, ‘may I live’. With spontaneous momentum instinctive even in a Knower, is self-preservation. Spontaneous because of what it is, pure Ignorance in the mind; momentum: ceaselessly operating to bear along, as a river is said to bear things along itself when it is seen that nothing is being done by any human agent. Or else, it is spontaneous because its very essence is to bear along perpetually. And this spontaneous momentum is instinctive even in a Knower (vidvat), even in one of right vision (samyagdarśana). The force of the word even is, that fear of death is logical only in the ignorant, who think of the self as destructible. It is illogical in those of right vision, who think that the …

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Yoga Sutra 2.10 when the yogin’s mind has ended its involvement

Sūtra II.10 In their subtle state, they are to be got rid of by dissolution in their source When the yogin’s mind has ended its involvement and dissolves, the five taints, now like scorched seeds, come to an end with it. This sūtra is begun to distinguish the treatment of the cases: In their subtle state, they are to be got rid of by dissolution in their source. (The commentary adds:) When the yogin’s mind has ended its involvement and dissolves, the five taints, now like scorched seeds, come to an end with it. What is being said is this: the taints, reduced to the sterility of fire-scorched seeds by the practice (abhyāsa) of right vision (samyagdarśana), come to their dissolution by reason of that very dissolution, that dissolving, of the mind which has wholly fulfilled the purposes of Puruṣa; so they do not need any practice of meditation (dhyāna). …

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Yoga Sutra 2.11 mental processes arising are got rid of by meditation

Sūtra II.11 Mental processes arising from them are got rid of by meditation Mental processes from the taints are in manifest form (sthūla), and are first thinned out by the yoga of action; then they are to be got rid of by contemplation (prasaṅkhyāna), by meditation (dhyāna), until having thereby been made subtle, they are then made like scorched seeds. (Opponent) Which are the ones then which do need practices like meditation? (Answer) As to those which persist, though reduced to the seed state, mental processes arising from them are got rid of by meditation. Mental processes from the taints are in manifest form, and are first thinned out by the yoga of action, consisting of tapas, self-study, and devotion to the Lord, this yoga being the opponent on the level of manifestation. Then from that thinning out they are reduced to the state of seed powers, when they are …

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Yoga Sutra 2.12 the karma-stock to be felt in present or future lives

Sūtra II.12 Rooted in taints is the karma-stock to be felt in present or future lives That karma-stock of good and bad is produced from greed, delusion and anger. It is to be felt in the present or future lives. (Opponent) Why strive to get rid of the taints? (Answer) To this he says: Rooted in taints is the karma-stock to be felt in present or future lives. To say that the karma-stock is rooted in the taints means that its cause of origin is Ignorance and other taints. The karma-stock (āśaya), so-called because it is in stock (śaya) in the mind until (ā) it has brought forth its karma-fruit, is white or black in nature. It, that is, its fruits, has to be felt, has to be experienced, in either the present life or a future one. The sūtra means that the karma-stock whose fruit has to be karmically …

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Yoga Sutra 2.13 while the root is there, it will bear the fruit of birth, life span and experience

Sūtra II.13 While the root is there, it will bear the fruit of birth, life span and experience While taints are there, the karma-stock will come to fruition, but not when the root of taints has been cut. It is like rice grains still encased in the husk, not having been scorched, which are seeds with the power of growth; not so when they have been husked, or have been scorched. While the root is there, it will bear the fruit of birth, life span and experience. The root is the taint of karma. While this root is there, meaning while the taints are there, it the karma-stock of good and bad, born of greed and anger will bear the fruit will come to full fruition. What is that fruition? birth, life span and experience. With the words While the root is there, the karma-stock will come to fruition, but …

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Yoga Sutra 2.14 their fruits are joy and suffering caused by virtue and sin

Sūtra II.14 Their fruits are joy and suffering caused by virtue and sin The birth, life span, and experience of which virtue is the causal agent are happy fruits; those of which sin is the causal agent are painful. What is inherently adverse is pain, so for the yogin even at the time of pleasure there is only pain, because even pleasure is adverse to the yogin. Karma-stock has been further explained as: due to be felt in a present life, and due to be felt in future lives. Of it there are three fruitions: birth, life span, and experience. Their fruits are joy and suffering, caused by virtue and sin. Joy is happiness, suffering is pain. This pair of joy and suffering are the fruits of those (actions). Virtue and sin are also a pair, and these two are the respective causes. The causality of the two is a …

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Yoga Sutra 2.15 to the clear-sighted everything is pain alone

Sūtra II.15 Because of the sufferings caused by changes and anxieties and the saṃskāra-s of them, and from the clash of the guṇa-s, to the clear-sighted, everything is pain alone In every case, experience of pleasure is pervaded with passion-desire, deriving from some source conscious or unconscious; the karma-stock therefrom is produced by passion-desire. How at a time when the object of experience is happiness, can it be pain? It has been said already (under II.5) that he is going to show that the experience of pleasure is pain. The answer is given now because in that place it was not explained. Because pain is the result of any action, and it has to be explained at length how it is reasonable that it (pain) should logically follow immediately on action. Changes, anxieties and saṃskāra-s are to be understood separately; anxieties and saṃskāra-s are pain, and in addition to that …

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Yoga Sutra 2.16 the pain not yet come

Sūtra II.16 What is to be escaped is the pain not yet come Pain which has passed, which has been exhausted by being lived through, is not in the category of the escapable, and present pain has attained its moment of experience and is not to be escaped in some other moment. So it is only pain not yet come, which afflicts the yogin sensitive as an eyeball, that is to be escaped. Unless the patient too is included in the four-fold classification of disease, etc., the medical classic with its goal of health will not be complete in its four parts; here too, unless the one who escapes is included in the four-fold classification beginning with what is to be escaped, the work on right vision, whose fruit is release, will not be complete. Beginning with what is to be escaped, therefore, The four parts of the work are …

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Yoga Sutra 2.17 the Seer is Purusa, witness of the mind buddhi

Sūtra II.17 The Seer-Seen conjunction is the cause of what is to be escaped The Seer is Puruṣa, witness of the mind (buddhi). The Seen is all objects (dharma) presented by mind-sattva. It has been said that the work is set out in four parts. One part out of the four has been explained: what is to be escaped is the pain which has not yet come. Now the second part, which is the cause, the reason, of the pain is again identified. (Opponent) But the cause of pain has already been pointed out, at the end of the summing up (in II.15) when it was said that Ignorance is the seed which produces that great mass of pain. (Answer) True, but what was indicated there was only the bare nature of pain and the bare nature of its cause. In the statement of the bare nature of these, the …

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Yoga Sutra 2.18 the Seen consists of the elements and the senses

Sūtra II. 18 With a constant tendency towards light, action, and fixity, the Seen consists of the elements and the senses, being for the purpose of experience and transcendence Sattva tends towards light; rajas tends towards action; tamas tends towards fixity. With a constant tendency towards light, action, fixity, the Seen consists of the elements and the senses, being for the purpose of experience and transcendence. Light and action and fixity. Light is placed first as being the most important. There is no particular reason for the order of the words fixity and action, as they both apply indiscriminately to many things. The word ‘action’ has in fact been put first in the compound. With-a-constant-tendency (śīla) means with a tendency towards light and action and fixity (respectively). Light is illumination, and what has a constant tendency towards light is sattva. (Opponent) But illumination is an action, and in that case …

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Yoga Sutra 2.19 the three gunas which make up the Seen

Sūtra II.19 What particularizes itself, and what does not, what goes (liṅga, the Great principle) and what does not (a-liṅga, pradhāna), are guṇa-implementers To determine the different phases the differentiation of the states of being of the three guṇa-s which make up the Seen whose nature has been described, the following sūtra is presented; What particularizes itself and what does not, what goes and what does not, are guṇa-implementers. (Grammatical excursus on the peculiar reading of the sūtra: viśeṣāviśeṣa-liṅgamātrāliṅgā guṇaparvāṇaḥ instead of viśeṣāviśeṣa-liṅgamātrāliṅgāni guṇaparvāṇi.) a-liṅga is a technical term for pradhāna, which does not go to dissolution (na liṅgati, see I.45), nor come from somewhere else. A masculine noun, a-liṅga, may be correctly derived from the root (liṅg, to go) by the extension (Mahābh. III.1.134) to any (qualified) root of the capacity of the pac- group roots to form a noun of agency by merely adding -a. The noun consequently …

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Yoga Sutra 2.20 the Seer is sight alone; though pure, he looks on at the thoughts

Sūtra II.20 The Seer is sight alone; though pure, he looks on at the thoughts ‘sight alone’ means the power of the Seer alone, untouched by any qualification. This Puruṣa is the witness of mind. He is not like the mind, and not absolutely unlike it. The Seen has been explained it has been determined. Now he takes up the determination of the true nature of the Seer by whom these objects are seen. The Seer is sight alone; though pure, he looks on at the thoughts. The Seer: Puruṣa aware of the Seen as it has been described. His definition is sight-alone; though pure, he looks on at the thoughts. Here are being presented the same two points previously described in the sūtras ‘Then the Seer is established in his own nature’ (I.3) and ‘Otherwise, it conforms itself to the mental process’ (I.4). There is observation (anudarśana) of the …

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Yoga Sutra 2.21 the essence of the Seen is to be for the purpose of him alone

Sūtra II.21 The essence of the Seen is to be for the purpose of him alone Since the Seen has its being as an object for Puruṣa, whose nature is sight alone, the essence of the Seen is to be for the purposes of him alone. It means that this is its true being. Therefore it has come to exist at all only through the being of that other, and when the purposes of experience and release have been effected, it is not seen by Puruṣa. Him refers back to the Seer, sight alone, pure, whose self is as has been described; for the purposes of him means for him, for his sake, for his purpose, for which it becomes the object of sight. The purposes are either as experience or as release. The essence of the Seen means the essence of pradhāna, what it is in itself. (Opponent) But …

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Yoga Sutra 2.22 the Seen is ended

Sūtra II.22 For one whose purpose has been effected, it is ended, but not for others, because it is common In regard to a particular Puruṣa, the Seen is ended, but though it has come to an end, it is not ended for others, because it is common. For the skilful Puruṣa it comes to an end, but for the unskilful Puruṣa the purpose has not been effected, and for these it becomes their object of sight, given that nature by the nature of the other. In regard to a particular Puruṣa, one for whom the Seen has fulfilled its purpose, the Seen as an object would not be appearing: Losing its character, it comes to an end. Yet it does not end for all. How so? Why is this? There are many pradhāna-s, one for each Puruṣa, and it is only the one which has fulfilled its purpose that …

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Yoga Sutra 2.23 awareness of the natures of the two powers, the property and its possessor

Sūtra II.23 The conjunction causes awareness of the natures of the two powers, the property and its possessor Puruṣa is the possessor who is joined to his own seen object for the purpose of seeing. Awareness of the seen object, arising from that conjunction, is experience; but awareness of the nature of the Seer is release. The Seen has been determined; the Seer has been determined. It has been said that the conjunction of Seer and Seen is the cause of what-is-to-be-escaped, and now it has to be determined what sort of conjunction this is. The sūtra says, The conjunction causes awareness of the nature of the two powers, the property and its possessor. The two powers, property and its possessor, are the mind and Puruṣa, and the conjunction causes, effects, awareness of their natures. That by whose existence the two natures – as of a face and mirror, as …

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Yoga Sutra 2.24 its cause is Ignorance avidya

Sūtra II.24 Its cause is Ignorance (a-vidyā) This means the saṃskāra-complex (vāsanā) of illusory knowledge (viparyaya-jñāna). The conjunction of each Puruṣa with the guṇa-s is the same. The conjunction of all of them with the guṇa-s is the same in each case. It is common, but what is individual is the conjunction of the separate consciousness (pratyak-cetana), the witness of the ideas of the mind (bauddha-pratyaya) with its own mind. And it is the failure-to-see by which this individual conjunction with its own mind comes about. Its cause the cause of the conjunction which makes it take the relation of possessor and possessed as its own true nature is Ignorance; this means the saṃskāra-complex (vāsanā) of illusory knowledge (viparyaya-jñāna). (Opponent) But it has been said, ‘Illusion is false knowledge based on an untrue form’ (I.8), and it has been said that Ignorance is ‘conviction of permanence, purity and happiness and …

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Yoga Sutra 2.25 release is Transcendental Aloneness kaivalya of the power-of-sight

Sūtra II.25 Without it, there is no conjunction, and that release is Transcendental Aloneness (kaivalya) of the power-of-sight Without that failure-to-see there is no conjunction of mind and Puruṣa. That means absolute cessation of bondage. This is release (hāna), the Transcendental Aloneness of the power-of-sight. It is the state of detachment of Puruṣa, and no further conjunction with the guṇa-s. Then Puruṣa is said to be established in his own nature. Cessation of pain and disappearance of its cause is release. The subject-matter of the work was said to come under four headings (on sūtra 1.1). Of these, one heading, compared to the illness (in medical works) has been explained as Pain that is to be escaped, in the words ‘What is to be escaped is pain not yet come’ (sūtra II.16). Conjunction as the cause of what is to be escaped, and the cause of the conjunction, have been …

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Yoga Sutra 2.26 unwavering Knowledge-of-the-difference is the means of release

Sūtra II.26 Unwavering Knowledge-of-the-difference is the means of release Knowledge-of-the-difference is the idea that (mind-)sattva and Puruṣa are different. But this wavers, until illusory knowledge has ceased. When illusory knowledge is reduced to the condition of sterility like scorched seed, the sattva, cleansed of the taints of rajas, reaches the highest purity of consciousness of mastery; its flow of the ideas of Knowledge-of-the-difference becomes without taint. Unwavering Knowledge-of-the-difference (viveka-khyāti) is the means of release. As to what that Knowledge-of-the-difference is which is being referred to, he says: Knowledge-of-the-difference is the idea that (mind-)sattva and Puruṣa are different, namely a correct awareness of where sattva and Puruṣa are similar and where they are distinct. But this Knowledge-of-the-difference wavers is not firm (sthira), is not effective, until illusory knowledge (mithyā-jñāna) has ceased. As it is said: As gold unrefined does not shine, So the knowledge of an immature man attached to the …

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Yoga Sutra 2.27 the ultimate state of the Knowledge is seven-fold

Sūtra II.27 Therein, the ultimate state of the Knowledge is seven-fold The word Therein refers to the uprisen Knowledge (khyāti). Seven-fold: the Knowledge of the Knower-of the-difference, when no other ideas arise in the mind because the dirt of veiling impurity has gone, is of just seven aspects. They are: (1)What is to be escaped has been fully examined and needs no more examining; (2)The causes of what is to be escaped have dwindled away and need to be destroyed no more; Now to show the characteristic conviction of his own experience in the man of right vision when that vision has awakened in him, he says: Therein, the ultimate state of the Knowledge (prajñā) is seven-fold. The word Therein refers to recalls the uprisen Knowledge the right vision now existing. Because the dirt (mala) of veiling impurity has gone: the veiling is merely impurity – taints and karma-s. They …

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Yoga Sutra 2.28 destruction of impurity and a growing light of knowledge

Sūtra II.28 From following up the methods of yoga, destruction of impurity and a growing light of knowledge up to Knowledge-of-the-difference Knowledge-of-the-difference when perfected, Knowledge-of-the-difference when mastered, attaining its ultimate fruit in the seven-fold ultimate state of knowledge, is the means to release. Every perfection must have its own means. He introduces the subject of the means to perfection of Knowledge-of-the-difference: From following up the methods of yoga, destruction of impurity and a growing light of knowledge up to Knowledge-of-the-difference. This does not mean to say that Knowledge-of-the-difference comes about from practice of the yoga methods alone; perfection in it is in fact only for those who begin with worship of a guru, and practice of virtue (dharma). What he wishes to say is, that without this yoga as a means, it does not come about. The practice of the yoga methods is not the means by itself, but it …

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Yoga Sutra 2.29 the eight methods

Sūtra II.29 Restraints, observances, posture, restraint of vital currents, dissociation, concentration, meditation, samādhi are the eight methods (Opponent) But in other yoga scriptures there are only six methods – the ones from posture onwards. They say, ‘The yoga of six methods is now expounded’, and so on. For posture and those which follow it do directly help towards samādhi; not so the restraints and observances. (Answer) The objection does not hold, because following the restraints and observances is the basic qualification to practise yoga. The qualification is not simply that one wants to do yoga, for the holy text says: ‘But he who has not first turned away from his wickedness, who is not tranquil and subdued, or whose mind is not at rest, he can never obtain the Self (even) by knowledge’ (Kaṭha 1.2.24). And in the Atharva text, ‘It is in those who have tapas and brahmacarya, in …

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Yoga Sutra 2.30 harmlessness, truth-speaking, no stealing, brahmacarya, not holding possessions

Sūtra II.30 Of these, harmlessness, truth-speaking, no stealing, brahmacarya, not holding possessions, are the restraints Of these, harmlessness means, in no way and at no time to do injury to any living being. The other restraints and observances are rooted in this, and they are practised only to bring this to its culmination, only for perfecting this. They are taught only as means to bring this out in its purity. For so it is said: Whatever many vows the man of Brahman would undertake, only in so far as he thereby refrains from doing harm impelled by delusion, does he bring out harmlessness in its purity. Of these methods, first of all the restraints are described: Harmlessness, truth-speaking, no stealing, brahmacarya, not holding possessions, are the restraints. Of these, harmlessness (a-hiṃsā) means in no way in no capacity and in no fashion to do injury to any living being, to …

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Yoga Sutra 2.31 the Great Vow

Sūtra II.31 When practised universally without qualification of birth, place, time, or obligation, they are called the Great Vow For instance, harmlessness qualified by birth would be that of a fisherman, where he does injury to fish alone but to nothing else. It may be qualified by place, ‘I will not kill anything at a place of pilgrimage’, or by time, ‘I will not kill on the fourteenth day,’ ‘I will not kill on an auspicious day’. Even where not limited in these three ways, it may be qualified by obligation. Harmlessness and the others are to be maintained all the time and in all circumstances and in regard to all objects without any conscious lapse. Restraints so practised are said to be universal, and are termed the Great Vow. But these: this is to rule out the idea that qualifications like birth, place, and time, which distinguish other dharma-s, …

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Yoga Sutra 2.32 purity, contentment, tapas, self-study, and devotion to the Lord

Sūtra II.32 Purity, contentment, tapas, self-study, and devotion to the Lord are the observances Of these, external purity is attained by using earths and such like, and by purity of diet and so on also. The internal is washing away stains of the mind. Purity, contentment, tapas, self-study, and devotion to the Lord, are the observances. Of these, external purity is attained by using earths and such-like, this last phrase indicating water, and by purity of diet and so on, meaning foods such as butter and milk; the word also implies purity in seeing and listening. This is the external purity. Now the internal, namely washing away stains of the mind such as desire and anger, by the waters of meditation (bhāvanā) on their opposites. Contentment is being satisfied with the resources at hand and so not desiring more. As a result of the satisfaction with what is at hand, …

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Yoga Sutra 2.33 if there is obstruction by contrary ideas, meditation on their opposite

Sūtra II.33 If there is obstruction by contrary ideas, meditation on their opposite When in a Brahmin, contrary ideas arise, such as harming others (in forms like) ‘I will kill him who offends me’, ‘I will tell lies about him’, ‘I will take his wealth for myself, ‘I will take my pleasure with his wives’, ‘I will make myself master of all he has’ – thus opposed by the blazing fire of the contrary ideas which carry him out of his path, let him meditate on the opposite of these: ‘Roasted on the cruel fires of saṃsāra, I have sought refuge in the yoga path of causing fear to none. Yet this same I, having given up the contrary ideas, am taking to them again, acting like a dog. As the dog licks his own vomit, so am I taking again to what had been given up’ – so should …

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Yoga Sutra 2.34 meditation on their opposite

Sūtra II.34 The contrary ideas, violence and the others, done or caused to be done or approved of, preceded by greed, anger or delusion, mild, medium, or intense – all result in endless pain and Ignorance. This is the meditation on their opposite Of these, violence is taken as the example. It is threefold: done, or caused to be done, or approved. And each one of these too is threefold: from greed, as by one desiring meat and skin; from anger, as by one believing himself injured; from delusion, as by one who thinks that thereby he will acquire merit. Then greed, anger, and delusion are again threefold, namely mild, medium, and intense, so that violence has twenty-seven divisions. Again these three last have three further sub-divisions, mildly-mild, medium-mild, and intensely mild; then mildly-medium, medium-medium, and intensely medium; then mildly-intense, medium-intense, and intensely intense. In this way there are eighty-one …

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Yoga Sutra 2.35 with establishment of harmlessness, in his presence enmity is abandoned

Sūtra II.35 With establishment of harmlessness, in his presence enmity is abandoned This happens with all living beings. With establishment of harmlessness, when it is firm and clear of contrary ideas, in his presence enmity is abandoned; in the presence of that one who follows harmlessness, even natural enemies like snake and mongoose give up their antagonism.

Yoga Sutra 2.36 with establishment of truth, events confirm his words

Sūtra II.36 With establishment of truth, events confirm his words When he says, ‘Be righteous’, that man becomes righteous; told by him, ‘Do you attain heaven’, that one attains heaven. His word is infallible. With establishment of truth, events confirm his words. When truth is firm in him, events confirm his words. The confirmation of the results of actions like sacrifices consists in the fact that they are actually attained, and it is to be understood that here these results follow something said by a truth-speaker. How so? When he says to an evil man, ‘Be righteous’, from those words, that man becomes righteous; as when it was said by the gods, ‘Let his mind delight in virtue’ and Kuṇḍadhārārādhī became a righteous Brahmin (Mokṣadh. 271); told by him, ‘Do you attain heaven’, that one attains heaven. Just so Triśaṅku was told by Viśvāmitra, ‘Attain heaven’ (Viṣṇu Pur. etc.) and …

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Yoga Sutra 2.38 with establishment in brahmacarya, attainment of energy

Sūtra II.38 With establishment in brahmacarya, attainment of energy From that attainment, he draws out invincible good qualities from himself And when perfected in it, he becomes able to confer knowledge on pupils. With establishment in brahmacarya, attainment of energy. From that attainment of brahmacarya, he draws out invincible good qualities, he brings them out without limit from himself. He has irresistible energy for all good undertakings. The sense is, that he cannot be thwarted by any obstacle. He becomes able to confer knowledge on pupils; to proper and virtuous pupils he can pass on his knowledge, as holy Vyāsa has enjoined.

Yoga Sutra 2.39 with firmness in not possessing property, clear knowledge of the conditions of birth

Sūtra II.39 With firmness in not possessing property, clear knowledge of the conditions of birth … becomes his. What is this birth? How does it take place? What do we become (after death), who shall we be and in what circumstances shall we be? Any such desire of his to know his situation in former, later and intermediate states is spontaneously gratified. Clear knowledge of the conditions of birth: knowledge of how one is born. What is this birth? what is the truth about this birth of mine? How does it take place? by what process? What do we become? after death do we not exist, or do we exist? Who shall we be and in what circumstances shall we be? Any such desire to know his situation in former, later and intermediate states past, future and present is spontaneously gratified, as a foreshadowing of right vision (samyagdarśana). Since he …

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Yoga Sutra 2.40 from purity, distaste for his own body and no intercourse with others

Sūtra II.40 From purity, distaste for his own body and no intercourse with others When by practising purity and seeing the defects in the body, he becomes disgusted with his own body, he becomes free from obsession with the body; seeing what the body essentially is, he has no intercourse with others. So seeing, the renunciate finds no purity in the body even after he has washed it with earth and water and other things; how should he engage in intercourse with the absolutely unpurified bodies of others? The perfections of the restraints have been stated, and now the observances are taken up. From purity, distaste for his own body and no intercourse with others. When by practising purity and seeing the defects in the body, he becomes disgusted with his own body he sees how contemptible the body is and becomes a renunciate, free from obsession with the body. …

Read moreYoga Sutra 2.40 from purity, distaste for his own body and no intercourse with others

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