Political freedom gives chances to express the soul of a people, but, as Dr. Shastri often pointed out, it has also the dangers of self-destruction, when quarrelling parties struggle for power. In such cases, rule by a foreigner can be an advantage, because the foreigner is impartial.

For instance, the Italian city-states of the Middle Ages were generally split between two or three great families.

Call them Montagu and Capulet. If the Montagus were in the ascendent, they would never appoint a Capulet to any position of importance. So half the talents of the city were ruled out. Then one city, Milan revived an old Roman title, Podesta or ruler; they appointed a foreigner of known ability, from a distant city to this supreme office.

The city was now much better run: a Montagu would never yield to a Capulet; he would be disgraced in his own eyes. But he could take an order from the Podesta to yield a point to a Capulet, without losing self-esteem. In theory, they sacrificed some of their political freedom to the foreigner, who was impartial and promoted ability; in practice all sides benefited.

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